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and gardening are hard work, and it is work of the brain as well as the hands. There are two things, one of which the seeker after easy jobs will find conspicuous in his experi- | ence; he will either never find such a job, or he will never amount to anything. We do not know of anything that has been the subject of more exhausting thought or harder manual labor than fruit culture. Our great pomological advancement in this country has been the result of this mental and physical toil. Success in the business requires a very intimate acquaintance with some of the most perplexing sciences, and almost every year the fruit-grower runs amuck of entirely new difficulties which he must surmount with study and persevering toil.

"The reason that pomologists find pleasure in their avocation is largely because they love to labor. They are satisfied with the rewards of their labor, and so toil on patiently, the limbs often being weary and the head often aching. Neither the orchard or the garden is any place for a lazy man, and neither is it a place for a sick man, if regard for the interests of the orchard or garden are thought of. The garden or orchard will benefit the invalid, but the invalid will not benefit either of them. It is far better for such a person to engage in general farming, for they can not stand the strain which profitable fruit culture requires. It is true that after an orchard once gets a start, and comes into bearing condition, the labor is comparatively light. But even then, as before said, there are new difficulties to be overcome, and the mind and hands will find enough to do to make industrious habits and health a necessity. But when we compare the labor of general farming to the market garden, the labor attending the former is very much less than that attending the latter. We know of no men who work harder than the market gardeners on the outskirts of our cities. They earn all they get for their fruit and vegetables, and some of the naturally tired people who think that fruit-growing and gardening are such pretty work, and easy work, would be unwilling to labor a week as these gardeners do, for all the money they receive for a season's crops."

A Small Motor Wanted. There can be no doubt, says the Engineer, that the inventor who could supply in a really portable form a machine or apparatus which could give out two or three horse-power for a day would reap an enormous fortune. Up to the present tinfe, however, nothing of the kind has been placed in the market. Gas is laid on to most houses now, and gas engines are plenty enough, yet they do not meet the want which a storage battery may be made yet, perhaps, to supply.

Development of a Garden Plant. --The chrysanthemum, which claims so much interest among horticulturists, has an unusua!ly interesting history. In 1764 it was brought to Europe from China and planted in the Botanic Gardens at Chelsea in London, where,

however, it attracted little notice and soon afterward died out. In 1789, according to The Gardener's Magazine, a French merchant named Blanchard imported some plants from China to France, and the next year they found their way to England, where they were sold at a high price, and grown in a greenhouse. In 1795 there was a chrysanthemum seen in blossom in Mr. Colville's nursery in the King's Road, Chelsea. The flowers were small and of a dark purple, only half double; the petals were ragged and uneven. From 1798 to 1822 sixteen varieties were introduced from China. After that more progress was made and in one year alone (1824) twenty different sorts were imported. It was not, however, till 1830 that seed was first saved in the south of France and much finer blossoms were thus produced. In a few years' time chrysanthemums became so numerous that the old nomenclature-white clustered, aster flowered, marigold flowered, quilled yellow, tassled pink, etc.-had to be superseded as inadequate, and each was dignified with a distinct title.

The Early Rates of Postage.— Now that the two-cent postage law has gone into effect, the following provisions of the first law of Congress on the subject will probably be read with some attention:

February 20, 1792, was the first act fixing rates of postage on domestic letters, and established the following rates, to take effect June 1, 1792:

Act February 20, 1792, Section 9, by land: For every single letter not exceeding 30 miles,

6 cents.

For every single letter over 30 miles, and not exceeding 60 miles, 8 cents.

For every single letter over 60 miles, and not exceeding 100 miles, 10 cents. For every single letter over 100 miles, and not exceeding 150 miles, 12 cents. For every single letter over 150 miles, and not exceeding 200 miles, 15 cents. For every single letter over 200 miles, and not exceeding 250 miles, 17 cents. For every single letter over 250 miles, and not exceeding 350 miles, 20 cents.

For every single letter over 350 miles, and not exceeding 450 miles, 22 cents. For every single letter over 450 miles, 25 cents.

For every double letter, double the said


For every triple letter, triple the said


For every packet weighing one ounce avoirdupois to pay at the rate of four single letters for each ounce, and in that proportion for any greater weight.

Central American Antiquities.— The United States National Museum at Washington has lately acquired a complete set of the valuable collection of casts made by the Charnay expedition to Central America, and which comprises the most celebrated relics of Mexican and Central American ruins.

This collection will prove of inestimable value to students of American antiquities; and it is understood that the fullest opportunities will be afforded to specialists in these subjects to make the most careful investigation of these ancient monuments and of their hitherto undecipherable inscriptions. It is possible that with this remarkably rich collection at the disposal of archæologists, the many problematical questions respecting the origin and history of these remarkable races, that had reared a wonderful civilization upon this continent centuries before the advent of Europeans, may be solved.

The expedition of M. Charnay, it will be remembered, was sent out with the joint aid of the French government and Mr. Pierre Lorillard, a wealthy citizen of the United States, in the year 1880, with the object of making a thoroughly scientific examination of the many ruined cities, temples and other monuments of the ancient civilization of Mexico and Central America. This work received the sanction of the governments of these countries, and was prosecuted with energy for the space of two years, with such success that the expedition returned enriched with casts and photographs of all the noteworthy monuments of these countries.

Of these valuable collections, one suite is placed on permanent exhibition in the museum at the Trocadero Palace in Paris, and a duplicate copy, as we have just noticed, in the National Museum at Washington, where

it will doubtless form one of the most interesting features of that already vast storehouse of treasures. It is said to be the intention of Prof. Baird, the chief of the National Museum, to have some of the more remarkable of these relics-such, for example, as the bas-reliefs of the Temple of the Sun and those of the Temple of the Cross-mounted in such a manner as to reproduce as exactly as possible their surroundings in the temples in which they are found. This will certainly add very greatly to the interest which this remarkable collection of American antiquities must attract from all intelligent visitors to the museum.

Spiritualism to be Investigated. -By the terms of the will of the late Henry Seybert, a rich and eccentric citizen of Philadelphia, the later years of whose life were absorbed in the vain effort to get at the truth of what is known as spiritualism, a considerable legacy ($50,000) has been bequeathed to the University to found a professorship of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy, with the proviso that the authorities shall undertake to make a thorough investigation of the phenomena of modern spiritualism, and publish the evidence and the conclusions to which it leads. The University has accepted the bequest, and has appointed a committee of five members of its faculty to conduct the investigation. This committee comprises among its members the provost (an M.D.), and the professors of chemistry, social science, and anatomy, and a tutor, who is a clergyman.

We are doubtful that any definite result, one that will be satisfactory to the community, will be reached. The psychological complexity of the subject is much too great to be unraveled by positive methods. Mr. Seybert would have done better by leaving his money to some enterprise with an object, and that a demonstrated one.

What Makes Corn Pop.-Chemists who have examined Indian corn find that it contains all the way from six to eleven parts in a hundred (by weight) of fat. By proper means this fat can be separated from the grain, and it is then a thick, pale oil. When oils are heated sufficiently in closed vessels so that the air can not get to them, they are turned into gas, which occupies many times the bulk that the oil did. When popcorn is gradually heated and made so hot that the oil inside the kernels turns to gas, this gas can not escape through the hull of the kernels, but when the interior pressure gets strong enough it bursts the grain, and the explosion is so violent that it shatters it in the most curious manner. The starch in the grain becomes cooked, and takes up a great deal more space than it did before.

To Cure Wet Boots.—It is suggested by one who has tried it, that the following simple device will rob the cold, wet barnyard of a slushy winter or spring evening of half its promises of discomfort for the next morning: When the boots are taken off, fill them quite full of dried oats. This grain has a great fondness for damp, and will rapidly absorb the last vestige of it from the wet leather. As it takes up the moisture it swells and fills the boot with a tightly-fitting last, keeping its form good, and drying the leather without hardening it. In the morning shake out the oats and hang them in a bag near the fire to dry, ready for the next wet night; draw on the boots, and go happily about the day's work.

Suggestions on Making Farm ROADS. On one's own private property much can be done to make good roads at less than the cost or trouble often supposed. If no more, a ditch can be ploughed along on each side to carry off the water, and the soil somewhat rounded will still more assist the water to drain away. These ditches can be cleaned of leaves when the trees have become bare, and the material, as a fertilizer, will pay for itself. Very often there is stone on the property, which it will help mowing or cultivating to rake from the surface, and thus the road can be made with the material without cost to the road, and with benefit to the land.

In places where the land is entirely free from stone, brushwood can be used. This laid on the road before the ditches are cleaned out, and afterward the ditch soil thrown on it, makes a fair road-bed; not, of course, equal to stone, nor so lasting; but it will be found to pay well for the trouble, especially if the road-bed be made high, so that the water can pass readily away.

CHARLOTTE FOWLER WELLS, Proprietor. H. S. DRAYTON, A.M., M.D., Editor. NELSON SIZER, Associate Editor.



A SALUTATORY. THE HE reader who has accompanied us in our monthly course of the past year needs scarcely to be reminded concerning the nature of our work; but to him who comes to the pages of the PHRENOLOGICAL as to pastures new, it may be well to address a few words explanatory of the purposes we have in view, and which are as fresh in their outlook and as tenaciously held within our mental grasp as they were forty years ago when the magazine was a stripling. Generally speaking, the PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL AND SCIENCE OF HEALTH CONsiders man as a whole, but its special province is to consider his mental relations. This the reflecting reader will say is a field broad enough for one magazine, and we are ready to accept the opinion.

The tendency of our era is toward differentiation, the natural result of increased knowledge, it being found by the students of science that it is impossible for an individual, no matter what may be his powers of intellectual apprehension, to study one general subject in all its parts and applications. Were there capacity, there would not be time enough to pur

sue the endless details which open before the earnest examiner of nature. Hence, if thorough work is to be done, there must be specialties; and if these specialties are pursued in a generous spirit, with no bickerings or jealousies or invidiousness, there must accrue very considerable additions to the common stock of information.

There are workers in the field of mental physiology who now and then glean some new fact which is important; but progress in mental science is slow. What is now known with respect to brain structure and the inter-relation of mental phenomena and physical states, shows the subject to be one of great complexity. Phrenology reduces the data of mind to a few simple principles; but in their myriad applications these principles show their truth and beauty only when employed by the trained analyst.

Phrenology, as it comes within the purview of this magazine, has to do chiefly with character-to explain the how and why of talent and disposition-to indicate the organic sources of the humors and caprices, hopes and fears, passions and sentiments of the social farrago that surrounds us. The average man or woman is a bundle of incongruities; at one moment grave and reflecting, at another gay and frivolous; now beaming with kindness and affection, then cold and indifferent; at one moment stern and mandatory, at another feeble and cringing; to-day resolute and aspiring, to-morrow vacillating and motiveless. Philosophy may spin out a long theory in the attempt to resolve these contrary phases of character, but we fail by her means to reach a practical result-a well-defined formulary which shall serve as a key to unlock the mysteries of such phenomena so that


tion in his case show the type of character distinctly. The French king was of sluggish habit, fond of mechanical pursuits, inclined somewhat to economy, and rather indifferent to the comforts and pleasures of court society. His head shows why— it is low in the crown, broad in the region of the temples, and narrow toward the back part; while the English king's is cone-like in the crown, broad in the region of the ear, and heavy in the back part.

we shall have no doubtful understanding arbitrarily. Temperament and organizaof them. Philosophy can not point us to data upon which we can lean with confidence as tangible evidences of the truth of her reasoning. Phrenology says at the first, structure, organization, is correspondent with character; according to the development and exercise of a faculty, so is the development of its organic part, and in the brain must one look for the organic co-ordinates of the mental faculties. The average man is largely influenced by his surroundings: they play upon his different mental organs according to their nature for the time being, and elicit the responses seemingly so incongruous. There are shades of difference, however, in the conduct of average men in similar circumstances. You have but to look attentively at them to see the unlikeness, and then you have only to look at the brain structure, as shown by the form of the head, to obtain a good idea of the "why."

The consideration of the principles of organic growth includes the relations of training to mental development. This is a most important department, involving as it does so much of practical utility to the world. Birth is a great deal, but it is secondary to education in the final evolution of character. The best inheritance of faculty and power may be ruined early by improper training and perverse uses; while a poor inheritance of faculty may, by judicious culture and wise uses,

Consider the two kings-George III. of England and Louis XVI. of France--both be raised to a high degree of activity and willful men, lacking in reflection, untrust-power. worthy in judgment; the one, however, arrogant, obstinate, treacherous; the other weak, timid, reticent. Intellectually there was much similarity-both possessing a great preponderance of the observing organs, the reasoning elements being small. They were both quick in acquiring knowledge relating to natural objects, and had excellent memories, but were slow to comprehend the principles of government, the philosophy of civil rights, the logic of duty as kings and rulers. They found pleasure in the contemplation of things, while ideas and thoughts were unpleasantly burdensome. Then, too, the English monarch loved to indulge his appetite, and to exercise his caprices

The most successful men, the men who command the respect of society to-day, owe their advancement as a class not to high endowments which were born with them, but rather to fortunate associations in childhood and youth—to influences which brought into play the better qualities of their nature and supplied them with motives of a noble kind. An average endowment allied to good habits, pure purposes, and a good degree of patient industry, will help a man or woman up the ladder of life. What a man's education should be, what habits he should form and what purposes he should entertain, are among the topics specially treated in these pages. We aim to show how a person's organization in itself suggests

the mode of training suited to the correction of its defects and excesses, and to the production of a better condition of symmetry and harmony. This is the same old purpose which inspired the phrenologists of fifty and more years ago; and if record could be made of the influence which the teachings of the followers of Spurzheim and Combe have exerted in popular education, literature, art, jurisprudence, the management of asylums and prisons, and in the methods of business, it would be found no small matter; in fact, the principles of Phrenology have become interwoven with the best culture of the time, and have been among the stimuli which have contributed to the wonderful development of science and art.

The man or woman who is conversant with the facts of Phrenology is a believer in it. Examination leads inevitably to conviction. Candor in reading what is presented in these pages is all that the editor asks, and he gives the assurance that the reader will find before the year has passed that his candor has been richly paid by the personal benefit he has received, and he will count one more in the multitude of men and women who are better morally and intellectually because of their knowledge of Phrenology and acquaintance with the PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL.


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location of Amativeness, Parental Love, Friendship, and Inhabitiveness, and point out other regions or centers as the true places; for instance, 'Sex Love" is placed in the upper surface of the brain, a little forward of the center, Parental Love being allotted space directly below. It is argued in support of this view, that the experiments of Dr. Ferrier on the brains of animals are conclusive; that their "validity," etc., has been strongly indorsed by the most eminent physiologists in Europe and America. The writer does not appear to know that in scientific circles Dr. Ferrier's experiments are not deemed conclusive by any means, and that their subsequent reviewal by careful observers, notably Goltz and Munk, has not been confirmatory, it being found that most of the parts of the brain which he had mapped out, when subjected to galvanic irritation, did not respond in a regular and definite manner in producing muscular movements.

MM. Dupuy, Carville, and Duret hold with regard to Ferrier's announcements, that the excitement of the motor nerves is caused by the electric stimulation being conducted through the mass of the brain to the basilar ganglia, and therefore that the motor responses come from them and not from the convolutions.

Goltz and Munk tried experiments on animals to test Ferrier's conclusions. They removed the brain substance at the points designated by the London anatomist, and found that the animals, if permitted to live, recovered the functions which appeared at first to have been lost by such removal. Goltz is of opinion that the experiments do not warrant one in marking any motor centers in the hemispheres of the cerebrum, while any

"CORRECTING" THE LOCATION. CONTRIBUTOR to the Western Rural has something to say on the subject of brain function, and takes the view that the investigations of later physiologists have obtained results which, although in the main demonstrative of phrenological principles, disapprove the considerable destruction of the convo

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