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La littérature mène à tout. . à

condition d'en sortir. (Literature leads to everything.. on condition of leaving it.) A. Cuvillier-Fleury, Recueil des

Discours, etc., p. 92. Attributed to A. F. VILLEMAIN (1790-1870) when receiving X. MARMIER (1809-92) at the French Academy, Dec. 7, 1871.

L'alphabet est à tout le monde.

(The alphabet belongs to everybody.) P. Bourget, Etudes et Portraits-Rivarol.

JACQUES CASANOVA (1725-1803) when his title of DE SEINGALT was questioned. See Milord, ils sont du même alphabet.

La marquise n'aura pas beau temps pour son voyage. (The marchioness will not have fine weather for her journey.) Ste.-Beuve, Causeries du lundi, vol. 2, p. 471.

Remark made by LOUIS XV (1710-74) on seeing from a window the coffin of MME. DE POMPADOUR (1721-64) on its way from Versailles to Paris.

La monnaie de Turenne. (Change for Turenne). Nouvelle Biographie Universelle.

Mot of MME. CORNUEL (d. 1694) referring to the creation of new marshals of France at the death of Turenne in order to make way Often for a protégé of Louvois. erroneously ascribed to Mme. de Sévigné.

La montagne est passée, nous irons mieux. (The mountain is passed, we shall get along better now.)

Last words of FREDERICK THE GREAT (1712-86)—said to have been uttered in delirium.

La mort m'aura tout entier ou n'aura rien. (Death shall have me entirely or shall have nothing.)

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FABERT (1599-1662)-after being wounded in the thigh at the siege of Turin (1640), amputation having been declared necessary. The exact words, however, were :- 'Qui aura le gigot aura le reste du corps (who has the leg of mutton shall have the rest of the body.) "Il ne faut pas mourir par pièces; la mort, etc. (There is no need to die bit by bit, death, etc.)

La mort sans phrase. (Death without words.)

The ABBE SIEYÈS (1748-1836) is credited with having used these words in voting for the death of LOUIS XVI (Jan. 16, 1793), but the evidence is that he only voted for la mort (death), the words sans phrase being a note by the shorthand writer that Sieyes added no remarks like some of the others did. (Cf. the Moniteur, Jan. 20, 1793, p. 102; also Lamartine, Histoire des Girondins.)

L'amour est le roi des jeunes gens et le tyrandes vieillards. (Love is the king of young people and the tyrant of old men.)

Saying of LOUIS XII (14621515).

L'amour est plus fort que toutes les entraves qu'on lui oppose. (Love is stronger than all the obstacles that may be put in its way.) A. Mézières, Vie de Mirabeau, p. 63.

MIRABEAU (1749-91). Cf: Love laughs at locksmiths (Proverb). Were beauty under twenty locks kept fast,

Yet love breaks through, and picks them all at last.

Shakspere, Venus and Adonis,

v. 96.

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Saying derived from a hypotheti. cal case invented by JEAN BURIDAN (c. 1295-1360) of a donkey equally pressed by hunger and thirst and placed between a bucket of water and a measure of oats at equal distances from it. - Cf. Montaigne's Essays, bk. 2, ch. xiv.

L'Angleterre, ah! la perfide Angleterre. (England, ah ! perfidious England.)


JACQUES BOSSUET (1627-1704)— in his first sermon on the Circumcision. "L'Angleterre, ah ! la perfide Angleterre, que le rempart de ses mers rendoit inaccessible aux Romains, la foi du Sauveur y est abordée : Britannorum inaccessa Romanis loca, Christo vero subdita. (Tert. adv. Jud. v. 7, p 212) (England, ah! perfidious England, which the ramparts of its rendered inaccessible to the Romans, the faith of the Saviour landed there: etc.) Bossuet (1836 vol. 3, P. 687.) Cf. "Je crois, en vérité, comme vous, que le roi et la reine d'Angleterre [James II. and his queen Mary of Este] sont bien mieux a Saint Germain que dans leur perfide royaume. (I really think, like yourself, that the king and the queen of England are much better at Saint Germain than in their perfidious realm.)-Mme. de Sévigné. Also Boileau's Ode on a rumour, in 1656, that Cromwell was going to war with France:

"Jadis on vit ces parricides,

Aidés de nos soldats perfides," etc. (Formerly we saw these parricides [alluding to the execution of Charles I], aided by our perfidious soldiers, etc.) Here the word perfide is applied to the French soldiers.


a speech by Barère de Vieuzac (1755-1841) 7 prairial (26th May) 1794 occur the words: "Ne croyez




pas à leur astucieux langage, c'est un crime de plus de leur caractère perfide et de leur gouvernement machiavélique," etc. (Do not believe their [the English] crafty language, it is one more crime in their perfidious character and their Machiavelian government etc.) The speech concludes as follows:-"Que les esclaves anglais périssent, et l'Europe sera libre." (Let the English slaves perish, and Europe will be free.) The Annual Register (1794, p. 144) states that in Barère's speech of 30th May, 1794, he said "Do not trust to their artful language, which is an additional crime, truly worthy of their perfidious character, and their Machiavelian government." Cf. Les histoires qu'on relit à cause de cet évènement, ne sont pleines que de la perfidie des peuples.— (The stories that are re-read on account of this event, are full of nothing else than the perfidy of nations.) Mme. de Sévigné, Lettres (1836, vol. 2, p. 425.) (Letter dated 31/1/1689.) Also "France, by

the perfidy of her leaders, has utterly disgraced the tone of lenient council [sic] in the cabinets of princes, and disarmed it of its most potent topics."-E. Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France 1790 (Bohn's Library ed., vol. 2, p. 311.) See La perfide Albion.

La paix à tout prix. (Peace at any price.)

Phrase used by M. DE MANTALEMBERT (1810-70), Nov. 18, 1840, and which came to be applied to the new ministry. Cf. "We love peace as we abhor pusillanimity; but not peace at any price.-Douglas Jerrold -Specimens of Jerrold's Wit. Peace. Also "It would be a curious thing "to find that the party in this "country which on every public "question affecting England is in

"favour of war at any cost, when

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'they come to speak of the duty "of the Government of the United "States, is in favour of peace at "any price'".-Speech by John Bright, Dec. 4, 1861, at Rochdale. "Paris, May 14, 1848. . . . The bourgeoisie are eager for war

Lamartine having proclaimed, 'Paix à tout prix,' is therefore thought an obstacle.' A. H. Clough's Letters and Remains (London, 1865, p. 105). "Mihi enim omnis pax cum "civibus, bello civili utilior vide"batur ". ("I consider that any peace with our fellow citizens is preferable to civil war.")-Cicero, Philippica, 11, 15, 37.

La parole à été donnée a l'homme pour déguiser sa pensée. (Speech was given to man to disguise his thoughts.)

Attributed to TALLEYRAND (17541838), in Barère's Mémoires, but claimed by HAREL (d. 1846). Cf. Le Siècle, Aug. 24, 1846.

Cf. Voltaire, Dialogue du Chapon et de la Poularde (1763)

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ne se servent de la pensée que pour autoriser leurs injustices et n'emploient les paroles que pour 'déguiser leurs pensées [written 1763]. (They only use thought to warrant their injustices and words only to disguise their thoughts.) "The true use of speech is not so "much to express our wants as to "conceal them."-Goldsmith, The Bee, Oct. 20, 1759.

"Where Nature's end of language is declin'd,

"And men talk only to conceal the mind."

Young, Love of Fame, Satire 2, 1. 207 (1725-6). Imago animi sermo est. (Speech is the mirror of the mind.) Seneca, De Moribus, 72. Molière (Le Mariage forcé, SC. vi) makes Panurge

say: "La parole a été donnée "à l'homme pour expliquer sa "" pensée," etc. (Speech was given to man to explain his thoughts etc). That "speech is the shadow of deeds" was a saying of DEMOCRITUS (c. 460 c. 357 B.C)-Diog. L., Life. The comte J. d'Estournel in his Derniers souvenirs, p. 319 (1860) attributes the French saying to MONTROND, Talleyrand's âme damnée (familiar evil spirit).

This is confirmed by Captain Gronow in his Recollections and Anecdotes (second series, 1863), but he quotes the phrase as: "La "parole a été donnée à l'homme

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L. Rigaud, Dict. des lieux communs, 1887. See L'Angleterre, ah! la perfide Angleterre.

La petite morale tue la grande. (The little moral [of our daily life] kills the great.)

Saying of MIRABEAU (1749-91) Cf. Les petites considérations sont le tombeau des grandes choses. (Small considerations are the tomb of great things). Voltaire.

La plus grande pensée du règne. (The greatest thought of the reign).

Attributed to E. ROUHER (181484). MARSHAL E.-F. FOREY (1804-72), in the course of the debate in the Senate on the address, spoke as follows: "J'ai entendu

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une parole, je ne sais pas si elle est exacte; l'Empereur aurait dit, en parlant de l'expédition du 'Mexique, que ce serait une des "plus belles pages de son règne." (I have heard one word, do not know whether it is correct; the Emperor is reported to have said, speaking of the Mexican expedition, that it would be one of the finest pages of his reign.) Moniteur, Mar. 19, 1865. Possibly M. Rouher in repeating the Emperor's words gave them the first-named form.

La politesse est de toutes les nations; les manières de l'expliquer sont différentes, mais indifférentes de leur nature. (Politeness is of all nations; the ways of expressing it are different, but indifferent in their nature).

Saying of FENELON (1651-1715). L'appétit vient en mangeant.

(Appetite comes by eating). Attributed to JACQUES AMYOT (1513-93) who, having already the abbey of Bellozane, wanted the

bishopric of Auxerre. On CHARLES IX (1550-74) expressing astonishment at his greediness, Amyot used the above phrase. It occurs in Rabelais (Gargantua, bk. 1, ch. 5) as follows: "L'appétit vient en mangeant,' disoit Angeston; mais la soif s'en va en buvant. (Appetite comes by eating, said Angeston; but thirst goes away by drinking). Cf.


cibus omnis in illo

Causa cibi est."

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food raises a desire for food in him). (Ovid's Metamorphoses, bk. 8, 11. 841-2).

La première des femmes est celle qui a fait le plus d'enfants. (The first among women is she who has borne the most children.)

NAPOLEON'S (1769-1821) reply to MME. DE STAËL (1766-1817), who, fishing for a compliment, asked him who was the first among women.

La première qualité du soldat est

la constance à supporter la fatigue et la privation; la valeur n'est que la seconde. (The first quality of a soldier is constancy in enduring fatigue and privation; valour is only the second). Thiers, Hist. du Consulat et de l'Empire, vol. I, P. 47.

NAPOLEON (1769-1821). L'arbre de la liberté ne croît qu'arrosé par le sang des tyrans. (The tree of liberty grows only when watered by the blood of tyrants).

BERTRAND BARÈRE (1755-1841) -in a speech to the Convention Nationale (1792).

La reconnaissance est la mémoire

du cœur. (Gratitude is the memory of the heart).

Written on a black-board by a

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La réflexion doit préparer et la

foudre exécuter. (Reflection should prepare and lightning execute).

Saying of LAZARE HOCHE (176897). Cf. Deliberate slowly, execute promptly.

La république, elle est perdue; les brigands triomphent. (The Republic is doomed; the brigands triumph).

Reply made by ROBESPIERRE (1758-94), on his arrest being decreed by an immense majority of the National Convention (July 27, 1794) amid cries of Vive la liberté! Vive la République! (Long live liberty! Long live the Republic!)

La République est le gouverne

ment qui nous divise le moins. (The Republic is the government which divides us least).

L.-A. THIERS (1797-1877)—in a speech on public instruction, Feb. 13, 1850, said: ". . . elle [the Republic] est, de tous les gouvernements, celui qui nous divise le moins" (. . . . it is of all governments the one that divides us least). -Discours parlementaires vol. 8, pp. 608-9.

La République sera conservatrice, ou elle ne sera pas. (The Republic will be conservative, or it will not exist). Journal Officiel, Nov. 14, 1872.

In an address read by L.-A. THIERS (1797-1877) to the National Assembly, Nov. 13, 1872.

La révolution française est un bloc . (The French

revolution is a block. . . .) E. CLÉMENCEAU (b-1841)—in a speech in the French Chamber à propos of Sardou's play Thermidor (represented at the ComédieFrançaise, Jan. 24 & 26, 1891). "Messieurs, que nous le voulions ou non, que cela nous plaise ou que cela nous choque, la Révolution française est un bloc . . M. MONTAUT.-Indivisible! M. CLÉMENCEAU .. un bloc dont on ne peut rien distraire parce que la vérité historique ne le permet pas." (Gentlemen, whether we like it or not, whether it pleases or shocks us, the French revolution is a block M. MONTAUT-Indivisible! M. CLÉMENCEAU. . a block in which nothing can be changed, because historic truth does not permit it.) Le Journal officiel, Jan. 30, 1891, pp. 155-6.

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