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"For of illustrious men the whole earth is the sepulchre, and not the inscription alone of columns in their native land indicates it, but in countries also not their own, the unwritten memory which abides with every man of the spirit more than the deed.

"Emulous of men like these, do you also, placing your happiness in liberty, and your liberty in courage, shun no warlike dangers in defence of your country."

Pericles was not only an orator, but a statesman, and a general; expert in business, and of consummate address. He had the surname of Olympias given him, and it was said, that, like Jupiter, he thundered when he spoke, but whether he could out-thunder Jupiter or not, is not certainly known. He was, however, humane, just, and patriotic, as well as generous, magnanimous, and public-spirited. The people had absolute confidence in his integrity, and never was that confidence betrayed. Although having ample opportunities to do so, he did not accumulate a fortune for himself, but spent vast sums of money in beautifying Athens, and in public works of great utility.

At his death he valued himself chiefly on having never obliged any citizen to wear mourning on his account.

After Pericles, those who were most noted for their eloquence, were Cleon, Alcibiades, Critias, and Theramenes.

The style of oratory which then prevailed was concise, vehement, and manly.

Eloquence was more assiduously cultivated after the death of Pericles than it was before. The precepts of oratory had. not, until that time, been collected and reduced to anything like a system. There had been orators before the time of Pericles, of course, but in the nature of things, practice must precede theory. Oratory was undoubtedly prior in point of time to rhetoric. This must be the case with all arts. Many houses must have been built before a system of architecture could be formed; many poems composed before an art of poetry could be written.

All didactic treatises must, necessarily, consist of rules resulting from experience, and that experience must be

founded on previous practice. So, at the period mentioned, a set of men called rhetoricians, and sometimes sophists, sprang up. They were especially plentiful during the Peloponnesian war. Among them were Protagoras, Prodicus, and Thrasymus. The most eminent of the sophists, however, was Gorgias of Leontium. The most of the sophists joined to the art of rhetoric as taught by them, a subtile logic -and they were a sort of metaphysical skeptics, according to some writers, but Gorgias was a professed master of eloquence only. He was highly venerated in Leontium of Sicily, his native city, and money is said to have been coined with his name upon it. His style was quaint and highly artificial, and the fragment of his, which has been preserved, abounds in antithetical expressions. In the hands of men like Gorgias, who professed to teach others how to speak for and against every cause whatever, oratory degenerated into a trifling and sophistical art. They were the first corrupters of true eloquence. The great and good Socrates exploded the doctrines of the sophists, and recalled the attention of the Athenians to natural language and useful thought.

Isocrates flourished in the same age, but a little later than Socrates. His writings are still extant. He was a teacher of eloquence, and an orator of ability, but his orations are greatly wanting in vigour. They have, however, been much admired on account of the sound morality which they inculcate, and for the smoothness and elegancy of the orator's style. Isocrates is said to have been the first rhetorician who introduced regular periods which had a studied music and harmonious cadence. He spent ten years in polishing one discourse, still extant, the Panegyric. Cicero was an admirer and, in some respects, an imitator of Isocrates, but it must be said to his credit, that he recognised and avoided his chief faults-his affectation, and the tiresomely uniform, regular cadence of his sentences.

Isæus and Lysias belong also to this period. Lysias was somewhat earlier than Isocrates, but, unlike the latter, his style was unaffected and simple. He was a lawyer by profession, and his eloquence is almost exclusively forensic.

Thirty-four of his orations have been transmitted to us, and for their acuteness, clearness, and the method shown in their composition would not be bad models for the forensic orators of our own day, if we could not hear better ones in our courts at almost any time.

Isæus is chiefly remarkable for being the teacher of Demosthenes, the greatest orator, in many respects, that ever lived. The circumstances of his life are well known, and it is needless to dwell upon them at length. His ambition to excel in the art of speaking; his frequent failures; his untiring perseverance in surmounting all the disadvantages of person and address which he laboured under; his resolution in shutting himself up in his subterranean retreat, that he might study without being disturbed; his declamations by the seashore that he might accustom himself to the noise of a tumultuous assembly, and his use of pebbles in his mouth while practising, in order to cure certain defects of speech; his speaking at home with a naked sword suspended over his shoulder, that he might check a habit which he had of raising and lowering it, to which he was subject,— all these circumstances show us how much can be accomplished by industry and application, and what great labour is necessary for the attainment of excellence in the art of oratory.

Demosthenes, despising the affected style of the orators of his day, chose Pericles as his model, hence the chief characteristics of his style were strength and vehemence.

Demosthenes had a wide field for the display of patriotic eloquence, when Philip of Macedon, by the aid of the most insidious arts, endeavoured to lay the Greeks asleep to their danger, and by force and fraud to overthrow Grecian liberty. He first crushed his enemies at home and then enlarged his kingdom abroad, then invited by the Thessalians to assist them against the Phocians, he sent an army into Thessaly, and made a determined and bold attempt to seize the key of Greece, the famous pass of Thermopyla. This decisive movement alarmed the Athenians at last, and an assembly of the people was convened for the purpose of determining the

best course to be pursued for the purpose of arresting the progress of the enterprising Macedonian tyrant. Rising, like one inspired, Demosthenes, at this meeting, delivered, in impassioned tones, his first Philippic, and urged his hearers to make vigorous war against Philip. He realised the true state of affairs. He knew that many of the people had become corrupt and degenerate and incapable of estimating at its true value the great blessings of civil liberty; that traitors to their country, in the pay of Philip, were continually urging the people not to fight against him, and knowing these facts he governed himself accordingly. The following are some of the best passages from this famous speech:

"When, therefore, O my countrymen! when will you exert your vigour? Do you wait till roused by some dire event? till forced by some necessity? What then are we to think of our present condition? To freemen, the disgrace attending on misconduct is, in my opinion, the most urgent necessity. Or say, is it your sole ambition to wander through the public places, each inquiring of the other, 'what new advices?' Can anything be more new than that a man of Macedon should conquer the Athenians and give law to Greece? Is Philip dead?' 'No; but he is sick.' Pray what is it to you whether Philip is sick or not. Supposing he should die, you would raise up another Phillip, if you continue thus regardless of your interest!

"Then as to your own conduct, some wander about, crying, Philip hath joined with the Lacedemonians, and they are concerting the destruction of Thebes. Others assure us that he has sent an embassy to the king of Persia; others, that he is fortifying places in Illyria. Thus we all go about framing our several tales. I do believe, indeed, Athenians! he is intoxicated with his greatness, and does entertain his imagination with many such visionary prospects, as he sees no power rising to oppose him, and is elated with his success." He continues in the same high strain in the third Philippic:

"All Greece, all the barbarian world, is too narrow for this man's ambition. And though we Greeks see and

hear all this, we send no embassies to each other; we express no resentment; but into such wretchedness are we sunk, that even to this day we neglect what our interest and duty demand. Without engaging in associations, or forming confederacies, we look with unconcern upon Philip's growing power, each fondly imagining that the time in which another is destroyed is so much time gained on him; although no man can be ignorant that, like the regular periodic return of a fever, he is coming upon those who think themselves the most remote from danger.

"And what is the cause of our present passive disposition? For some cause sure there must be; why the Greeks, who have been so zealous heretofore in defence of liberty, are now so prone to slavery. The cause, Athenians, is that a principle which was formerly fixed in the minds of all, now exists no more; a principle which conquered the opulence of Persia, maintained the freedom of Greece, and triumphed over the powers of sea and land. That principle was an unanimous abhorrence of all those who accepted bribes from princes that were enemies to the liberties of Greece. To be convicted of bribery was then a crime altogether unpardonable. Neither orators nor generals would then sell for gold the favourable conjunctures which fortune put into their hands. No gold could impair our firm concord at home, our hatred of tyrants and barbarians. But now all things are exposed to sale as in a public market. Corruption has introduced such manners as have proved the bane and destruction of our country. Is a man known to have received foreign money? People envy him. Does he own it? They laugh. Is he convicted in form? They forgive him. So universally has this contagion diffused itself among us."

Sometimes Demosthenes found it difficult to arouse the Athenians to a just sense of their real danger. On one occasion when he was desirous of addressing a large meeting in the city, the people would not have heard him with attention, if he had not informed them that he only wished to tell them a story. Hearing this, he received their attention, and he commenced as follows: "Once upon a time there

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