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public. If, O Catiline, I should now order you to be arrested, to be put to death, I should, I suppose, have to fear lest all good men should say that I had acted tardily, rather than that any one should affirm that I acted cruelly. But yet this, which ought to have been done long since, I have good reason for not doing as yet; I will put you to death, then, when there shall be not one person possible to be found so wicked, so abandoned, so like yourself, as not to allow that it has been rightly done. As long as one person exists who can dare to defend you, you shall live; but you shall live as you do now, surrounded by my many and trusty guards so that you shall not be able to stir one finger against the republic: many eyes and ears shall still observe and watch you, as they have hitherto done, though you shall not perceive them.

"As, then, this is the case, O Catiline, continue as you have begun. Leave the city at least: the gates are open; depart. That Manlian camp of yours has been waiting too long for you as its general. And lead forth with you all your friends, or at least as many as you can; purge the city of your presence; you will deliver me from a great fear, when there is a wall between me and you. Among us you can dwell no longer. I will not bear it, I will not permit it, I will not tolerate it.

"For what is there, O Catiline, that can now afford you any pleasure in this city? for there is no one in it, except that band of profligate conspirators of yours, who does not fear you-no one who does not hate you. What brand of domestic baseness is not stamped upon your life? What disgraceful circumstance is wanting to your infamy in your private affairs? From what licentiousness have your eyes, from what atrocity have your hands, from what iniquity has your whole body ever abstained? Is there one youth when you have once entangled him in the temptations of your corruption, to whom you have not held out a sword for audacious crime, or a torch for licentious wickedness? Begone from the city, O Catiline, deliver the republic from fear; depart into banishment, if that is the word you


are waiting for. What now, O Catiline? Do you not perceive, do you not see the silence of these men; they permit it, they say nothing; why wait you for the authority of their words when you see their wishes in their silence?

"Wherefore, O conscript fathers, let the worthless begone, -let them separate themselves from the good,-let them collect in one place,-let them, as I have often said before, be separated from us by a wall; let them cease to plot against the consul in his own house,—to surround the tribunal of the city prætor,-to besiege the senate house with swords, to prepare brands and torches to burn the city; let it, in short, be written on the brow of every citizen, what are his sentiments about the republic. I promise you this, O conscript fathers, that there shall be so much diligence in us the consuls, so much authority in you, so much virtue in the Roman knights, so much unanimity in all good men, that you shall see everything made plain and manifest by the departure of Catiline,—everything checked and punished.'

"Catiline did not venture to make any reply to this speech, but he begged the senate not to be too hasty in believing everything which was said to his prejudice by one who had always been his enemy, as Cicero had; and alleged his high birth, and the stake which he had in the prosperity of the commonwealth, as arguments to make it appear improbable that he should seek to injure it; and called Cicero a stranger, and a new inhabitant of Rome. But the senate interrupted him with a general outcry, calling him traitor and parricide. Upon which, being rendered furious and desperate, he declared aloud what he had before said to Cato, that since he was circumvented and driven headlong by his enemies, he would quench the flame which his enemies were kindling around him in the common ruin. And so he rushed out of the temple.

"In point of effect, this oration must have been perfectly electric. The disclosure to the criminal himself of his most secret purposes-their flagitious nature, threatening the life of every one present-the whole course of his villainies and treasons, blazoned forth with the fire of increased eloquence

-and the adjuration to him, by flying from Rome, to free his country from such a pestilence, were all wonderfully calculated to excite astonishment, admiration, and horror."

This speech produced a powerful effect. It was the means of driving Catiline from Rome, and of saving the commonwealth from utter ruin. After the conspirator had fled from the city, Cicero called the people together into the forum, and delivered his second Catilinarian oration, which commences as follows:

"At length, O Romans, we have dismissed from the city, or driven out, or, when he was departing of his own accord, we have pursued with words, Lucius Catiline, mad with audacity, breathing wickedness, impiously planning mischief to his country, threatening fire and sword to you and to this city. He is gone, he has departed, he has disappeared, he has rushed out. No injury will now be prepared against these walls within the walls themselves by that monster and prodigy of wickedness. And we have, without controversy, defeated him, the sole general of this domestic war. For now that dagger will no longer hover about our sides; we shall not be afraid in the campus, in the forum, in the senate-house,-ay, and within our own private walls. He was moved from his place when he was driven from the city. Now we shall openly carry on a regular war with an enemy without hindrance. Beyond all question we ruin the man; we have defeated him splendidly when we have driven him from secret treachery into open warfare. But that he has not taken with him his sword red with blood as he intended, -that he has left us alive,-that we wrested the weapon from his hands,—that he has left the citizens safe and the city standing, what great and overwhelming grief must you think that this is to him! Now he lies prostrate, O Romans, and feels himself stricken down and abject, and often casts back his eyes towards this city, which he mourns over as snatched from his jaws, but which seems to me to rejoice at having vomited forth such a pest, and cast it out of doors."

The conspiracy was suppressed finally by the execution. of five of the principal conspirators, and by the fall of Cati

line himself in battle. Cicero for his services on this occasion received the thanks of the senate, and was universally hailed as the deliverer and father of his country.

All of the orations of Cicero deserve careful reading and study; especially is this true of the speech for Archias and that for Milo.

The orations against Marc Antony were the last which Cicero delivered. Cicero looked upon Antony as the greatest enemy to the liberties of the Roman people. From their resemblance to speeches of Demosthenes against Philip, these orations received the name of Philippics.

The peroration of the second Philippic contains a bold exclamation against Antony: "Consider, I beg you, Marcus Antoninus, do some time or other consider the republic; think of the family of which you are born, not of the men with whom you are living. Be reconciled to the republic. However, do you decide on your conduct. As to mine, I myself will declare what that shall be. I defended the republic as a young man, I will not abandon it now that I am old. I scorned the sword of Catiline, I will not quail before yours. No, I will rather cheerfully expose my own person if the liberty of the city can be restored by my death.

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May the indignation of the Roman people at last bring forth what it has been so long labouring with. In truth, if twenty years ago in this very temple I asserted that death would not come prematurely upon a man of consular rank, with how much more truth must I now say the same of an old man? To me, indeed, O conscript fathers, death is even now desirable, after all the honours which I have gained, and the deeds which I have done. I only pray for these two things: one, that dying I may leave the Roman people free. No greater boon than this can be granted me by the immortal gods. The other, that every one may meet with a fate suitable to his deserts and conduct toward the republic."

The last extract which the author will give, is the peroration of the sixth Philippic, addressed to the people, in which the orator endeavours to show that Roman citizens cannot be reduced to slavery:

"It is impossible for the Roman people to be slaves; that people whom the immortal gods have ordained should rule over all nations. Matters are now come to a crisis. We are fighting for our freedom. Either you must conquer, O Romans, which indeed you will do if you continue to act with such piety and such unanimity, or you must do anything rather than become slaves. Other nations can endure slavery. Liberty is the inalienable possession of the Roman people."

But the fetters of the Roman people had been forged, and their liberty was at an end. They did not heed the notes of warning which he sounded. He was included in the proscription of Antony, and was assassinated in the sixty-fourth year of his age, B.C. 43.

Quintilian has said of Cicero that his name "is only another for eloquence itself, and that he united in his manner the vehemence of Demosthenes, the copiousness of Plato, and the sweetness of Isocrates."

No adequate conception can now be formed of Cicero's impassioned eloquence. The most glowing description can but imperfectly paint the charms of his oratory. Its greatest force lay in the living voice-the graceful gesture-the expressive countenance-the beaming eye-the pathos and power of tone which thrill the hearer;-these were some of the characteristics of that oratory which so often thrilled the heart of a Roman audience.

Forensic oratory may be said to have passed away, at Rome, with the republic. Eloquence cannot exist under a despotic form of government. It can only be found in countries where free institutions flourish. Crematius Cardus, in the reign of Tiberius, thought otherwise, and on one occasion, he alluded in terms of praise to the patriots of the republic. He eulogised Brutus, and designated Cassius as the last of the Romans, but his temerity cost him his life.

In the dialogue on the "Causes of the Corruption of Eloquence," written, it is thought, by Tacitus a little more than a century after the death of Cicero, the author feelingly laments that oratory was extinct. He says: "Often have you

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