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torial spirit pervaded and controlled the popular assemblies, restrained the impetuosity of decision, and gave to those orators of the Forum, or Comitia, who had just spoken, or were to speak next day in the Senate, a more grave and temperate tone, than if their tongues had never been employed but for the purpose of impelling a headlong multitude.

But if the Greeks were a more impetuous and inconstant, they were also a more intellectual people than the Romans. Literature and refinement were more advanced in the age of Pericles than of Pompey. Now, in oratory, a popular audience must be moved by what corresponds to the feelings and taste of the age. With such an intelligent race as the Greeks, the orator was obliged to employ the most accurate reasoning, and most methodical arrangement of his arguments. The flowers of rhetoric, unless they grew from the stem of his discourse, were little admired. The Romans, on the other hand, required the excitation of fancy, of comparison, and metaphors, and rhetorical decoration. Hence, the Roman orator was more anxious to seduce the imagination than convince the understanding; his discourse was adorned with frequent digressions into the fields of morals and philanthropy, and he was less studious of precision than of ornament.

On the whole, the circumstances of the Roman constitution and judicial procedure appear to have wonderfully conspired to render Cicero an accomplished orator. He was born and educated at a period when he must have formed the most exalted idea of his country. She had reached the height of power, and had not yet sunk into submission or servility. "The subjects to be discussed, and characters to be canvassed, were thus of the most imposing magnitude, and could still be treated with freedom and independence. The education, too, which Cicero had received, was highly favourable to his improvement."

If the character of this work required that the author should treat of Cicero as a statesman, a philosopher, a philanthropist, and as a writer, he would shrink from the

attempt, and would feel inclined to imitate the example of the Greek artist, who, having chosen as the subject of his picture the sacrifice of Iphigenia, employed the resources of his art on the other figures of the group, but concealed the countenance of Agamemnon in the folds of his robe, and left to the imagination to conceive what he dared not venture to portray. But the scope of the present sketch is not so ambitious. It is not "Cicero as a statesman, saluted by the title of Pater Patria for his successful efforts against the enemies of the republic; or as a philosopher, discussing amidst the shades of Tusculum the immortality of the soul, and inquiring into the principles and grounds of moral duty"; but Cicero as an orator, whom he has to consider.

Marcus Tullius Cicero was born on the 3d day of January, 107 B. C., at Arpinum, in ancient times a small town of Latium, now part of Naples.

As a child Cicero discovered a great ardour for study, and made great progress under his teachers. His thirst for knowledge was remarkably great, and his mind was well fitted by nature, not only for acquiring, but for retaining information upon all subjects. In early life he was very fond of the study of poetry, and one of his first teachers was the poet Archias, who taught him the art of poetry. From his earliest years he is said to have distinguished himself in such a remarkable manner among those of his own age, that, hearing of his extraordinary genius, the parents of his schoolfellows came on purpose to the school to be eye-witnesses of it, and were delighted with what they saw and heard. The Roman youth were allowed to wear the toga virilis, or manly gown, at sixteen. As has been said, it was a custom at Rome at this time for the relations or friends of a youth, when he arrived at the age of sixteen, and was designed for the bar, to put him under the protection of one of the most celebrated orators. After this he devoted himself to his patron in a particular manner; went to hear him plead, consulted him about his studies, and did nothing without his advice. He was thus early accustomed, as it were, to breathe the air of the bar, which is the best school for a

young lawyer, and as he was the disciple of the greatest lawyers, and formed on the most finished models, he was soon able to imitate them.

From Scævola, the famous Roman lawyer, he acquired a profound knowledge of the civil law, and the political institutions of the Romans. He likewise studied philosophy in all its branches, with the greatest assiduity, and it was his opinion that it contributed more to making him an orator than rhetoric.

Milo was the most celebrated teacher of eloquence in Rome, and under his direction Cicero applied himself with the greatest diligence to the study of oratory. He practised declamation daily, repeating the finest passages of the best poets and orators. He also translated the passages of the most eminent Greek orators into Latin-thus enriching his own style with choice expressions. Cicero knew that, notwithstanding his great natural endowments, he could not reach an exalted position in the oratorical world, unless he submitted to the severest intellectual discipline and study, consequently he was unremitting in his efforts to master the art of oratory.7

By giving careful attention to the following passage from the writings of Cicero, the reader will understand why Cicero distanced all his competitors:

"No person at that time made polite literature his particular study, without which there is no perfect eloquence; no one studied philosophy thoroughly, which alone teaches us at one and the same time, to live and speak well; no one learned the civil law, which is absolutely necessary for an orator, to enable him to plead well in private causes, and form a true judgment of public affairs; there was no person well skilled in the Roman history, or able to make proper use of it in pleading; no one could raise a cheerfulness in the judges, and unruffle them, as it were, by seasonable railleries, after having vigorously pushed his adversary, by the strength and solidity of his arguments; no one had the art of transferring or converting the circumstance of a private affair into a common or general one; no person could some

times depart from his subject by prudent digressions, to throw in the agreeable into his discourse; in fine, no person could incline the judges sometimes to anger, sometimes to compassion, and inspire them with whatever sentiments he pleased, wherein, however, the principal merit of an orator consists."

Cicero began to plead when he was about twenty-six years of age. He was prevented by the troubles of the state from attempting it sooner. At the age of twentyseven he undertook his first important case, the defence of S. Roscius in a criminal prosecution. His speech, especially that portion of it relating to the punishment of parricides, which consisted in throwing the criminal, tied up in a sack, into a river, gained him great applause, but was condemned by the severer taste of his more advanced years. The passage mentioned is as follows: "Its intention was to strike the parricide at once out of the system of nature, by depriving him of air, light, water, and earth, so that he who had destroyed the author of his existence, might be excluded from those elements whence all things derived their being. He was not thrown to wild beasts, lest their ferocity should be augmented by the contagion of such guilt—he was not committed naked to the stream, lest he should contaminate that sea which washed away all other pollutions. Everything in nature, however common, was accounted too good for him to share in; for what is so common as air to the living, earth to the dead, the sea to those who float, the shore to those who are cast up. But the parricide lives so as not to breathe the air of heaven, dies so that the earth cannot receive his bones, is tossed by the waves so as not to be washed by them, so cast on the shore as to find no rest on its rocks."

Not only was his eloquence worthy of the commendation of his countrymen, but the courage which he exhibited as well. He was the only advocate who dared to brave the anger of Chrysogonus, the favorite of Sylla, the dictator, whose power in the commonwealth was at that time practically unlimited. Cicero was triumphant, and procured the

acquittal of his client. In the management of the case, he is said to have displayed the loftiest eloquence, which was received with shouts of applause by the audience. The successful defence of Roscius firmly established the reputation of Cicero as an orator, and placed him in the first class of advocates.

Shortly after the trial of Roscius, Cicero set out upon a tour to Greece and Asia Minor. He spent two years in these two countries in the study of philosophy and oratory, under the best philosophers and rhetoricians. He returned to Rome at the age of thirty, with his mind enriched with the treasures of Grecian literature, and with his style of eloquence polished and perfected.

The following remarks of a judicious critic upon the style of Cicero's oratory will be found interesting and instructive to the student of eloquence: "The object in this period most worthy to draw our attention, is Cicero himself; whose name alone suggests everything that is splendid in oratory. With the history of his life and with his character, as a man and a politician, we have not at present any direct concern. We consider him only as an eloquent speaker; and, in this view, it is our business to remark both his virtues, and his defects, if he has any. His virtues are, beyond controversy, eminently great. In all his orations there is high art. He begins, generally, with a regular exordium; and with much preparation and insinuation prepossesses the hearers and studies to gain their affections. His method is clear, and his arguments are arranged with great propriety. His method is indeed more clear than that of Demosthenes; and this is one advantage which he has over him. We find every thing in its proper place; he never attempts to move till he has endeavoured to convince: and in moving, especially the softer passions, he is very successful. No man, that ever wrote, knew the power and force of words better than Cicero. He rolls them along with the greatest beauty and pomp; and in the structure of his sentences, is curious and exact to the highest degree. He is always full and flowing, never abrupt. He is a great amplifier of every subject;

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