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Lord Brougham made the following comparison between the conqueror and the schoolmaster:

"But there is nothing which the adversaries of improvement are more wont to make themselves merry with than what is termed the march of intellect'; and here I will confess, that I think, as far as the phrase goes, they are in the right. It is a very absurd, because a very incorrect expression. It is little calculated to describe the operation in question. It does not picture an image at all resembling the proceedings of the true friends of mankind. It much more resembles the progress of the enemy to all improvement. The conqueror moves in a march. He stalks onward with the 'pride, pomp, and circumstance of war'— banners flying-shouts rending the air-guns thundering —and martial music pealing, to drown the shrieks of the wounded and the lamentations for the slain.

"Not thus the schoolmaster, in his peaceful vocation. He meditates and prepares in secret the plans which are to bless mankind; he slowly gathers round him those who are to further their execution; he quietly, though firmly, advances in his humble path, labouring steadily, but calmly, till he has opened to the light all the recesses of ignorance, and torn up by the roots the weeds of vice. His is a progress not to be compared with anything like a march; but it leads to a far more brilliant triumph, and to laurels more imperishable than the destroyer of his species, the scourge of the world,

ever won.

"Such men-men deserving the glorious title of Teachers of Mankind-I have found, labouring conscientiously, though, perhaps, obscurely, in their blessed vocation, wherever I have gone. I have found them, and shared their fellowship, among the daring, the ambitious, the ardent, the indomitably active French; I have found them among the persevering, resolute, industrious Swiss; I have found them among the laborious, the warm-hearted, the enthusiastic Germans ; I have found them among the high-minded, but enslaved Italians; and in our own country, God be thanked! their numbers everywhere abound, and are every day increasing.

"Their calling is high and holy; their fame is the property of nations; their renown will fill the earth in after ages, in proportion as it sounds not far off in their own times. Each one of those great teachers of the world, possessing his soul in peace, performs his appointed course; awaits in patience the fulfilment of the promises; and, resting from his labours, bequeaths his memory to the generation whom his works have blessed, and sleeps under the humble but not inglorious epitaph, commemorating one in whom mankind lost a friend, and no man got rid of an enemy.'"

Lord Brougham died at Cannes, upon the 7th day of May, 1868, in the ninetieth year of his age.

Nothwithstanding his faults, and they were many, Lord Brougham had, at bottom, genuine warmth of heart and good nature. He was an affectionate son, and a devoted parent and brother, and keenly sensible to the sufferings and sympathies of the poor.

Erskine.-Lord Erskine was, undoubtedly, one of the most remarkable advocates of any age or country, and the history of his life cannot be too carefully studied by the student of forensic oratory. His successes at the bar were not accidental. They were due to his own indefatigable energy and industry. His competitors for fame had been, almost without a notable exception, educated at the public schools and English universities, and while they were being instructed by the ablest teachers which could be found, he was laying in the stores of knowledge which were, afterwards, so useful to him, on board a man-of-war, or in the barracks of a marching regiment. To an ordinary aspirant for intellectual distinction, the difficulties which confronted Erskine would have proved insurmountable, but instead of being discouraged by them, Erskine was only stimulated to greater exertion.

In a small and poorly furnished room in an upper “flat ” of a very high house in Edinburgh, Thomas Erskine was born, on the 10th day of January, 1750. He was the youngest son of Henry David, tenth Earl of Buchan, and counted in his line many distinguished ancestors. One of

these distinguished ancestors, whose name it is not necessary to mention, having wasted the ample patrimony which once belonged to the family, Henry David was left with a very large family and a very small income, amounting to about £200 a year. His wife was a most extraordinary woman, equally eminent for piety, and good common-sense. She was the daughter of Sir James Stewart of Goodtrees in the county of Mid-Lothian. Erskine's parents were compelled to abandon an old castle standing on their small estate, for the wretched habitation in Edinburgh which has been mentioned, where their poverty would not be so conspicuous and their children better educated. Erskine's mother taught her children to read, and instilled at an early age, into their minds, the doctrines of the Presbyterian faith.

That buoyancy of spirit and sprightliness of fancy which he was noted for in after life was discovered in his youth. He attended for some years the High School of Edinburgh, eating, with considerable fortitude, his oatmeal porridge for breakfast, and soup maigre, called "kail," for dinner. Notwithstanding the economy practised, Edinburgh was found. too expensive for the slender finances of the family, and in 1762 they removed to St. Andrew's in Fife, where house rent was lower, and educational advantages not inferior.

At this time Erskine is said to have been "of quick parts and retentive memory, rather idly inclined, but capable of great application,-full of fun and frolic,-and ever the favourite of his master and his playmates."

One of his letters, written at this period to his eldest brother, Lord Cardross, who was then at Edinburgh, is of interest:


"I received your letter, and it gave me great joy to hear that you were in health, which I hope will always continue. I am in my second month at the dancing-school. I have learned shantrews and the single hornpipe, and am just now learning the double-hornpipe. There is a pretty large Norway ship in the harbour; the captain took Harry and me into the

cabin, and entertained us with French claret, Danish biscuit, and smoked salmon; and the captain was up in the town seeing Papa to-day. He is to sail on Friday, because the stream is great. Yesterday I saw Captain Sutherland exercise his party of Highlanders, which I liked very well to see. In the time of the vacation Harry and me writes themes, reads Livy and French, with Mr. Douglas, between ten and eleven. Papa made me a present of a ring-dial, which I am very fond of, for it tells me what o'clock it is very exactly. You bid me, in your last letter, write to you when I had nothing better to do: but, I assure you, I think I cannot employ myself better than to write to you, which I shall take care to do very often. Adieu, my dear brother, and believe me, with great affection.

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This note is said to have been very neatly written with lines. His grammatical errors in speaking of himself and brother Harry cannot fairly be complained of, for in fraternal affection they were one.

At the grammar school of St. Andrew's, under Mr. Hackett, whose scholarly attainments were not equal to his zeal as a teacher, Erskine attained only a moderate proficiency in Latin, and learned little of Greek beyond the alphabet. But happily for him he was taught to compose in English, as if it had been a foreign tongue, and being extremely fond of books, he read many volumes of English poems, plays, voyages, and travels. It is said that he was never matriculated in the university of St. Andrew's, but in the session of 1762-3 he attended the mathematical and natural philosophy classes, taught by professors of considerable eminence, and from them he imbibed the small portion of science of which he could ever boast.

Early in life he began to consider, with a seriousness which could not have been expected from one of his years and gay disposition, how he was to make his way in the world. His parents were so poor that they could do nothing better than send him to sea as a midshipman, but being desirous of

improving his mind, and of being bred to one of the learned professions, and having a particular aversion to the sea service, he asked that a commission in the army might be procured for him. After a correspondence between his father and some of his friends, this point seems to have been conceded to him. Believing this, he wrote the following letter to Lady Stewart, his aunt, which does him great credit for the noble aspirations which it discloses :


"Nov. 4, 1763.

"I received your letter about a week ago with great pleasure, and thank you for the good advice contained in it, which I hope by God's assistance I shall be able to follow.

"I am extremely glad that you approve of my not going to sea. I shall tell my reasons for it.

"In the first place, Papa got a letter from Commodore Dennis, laying before him the disadvantages at present of the sea service, on account of the many half-pay officers on the list, which all behoved to be promoted before me; he also acquainted Papa that he was sorry that if I did go he could be of no service to me, as he had at present no command, and had no prospects of getting any: he at the same time did not forget the advantages of it; but when I weighed the two in scales, the disadvantages prevailed, and still more when added to my own objections, which are as follows;— In the first place, I could have no opportunity of improving my learning, whereas in the army the regiment is often quartered in places where I might have all advantages. I assure you I could by no means put up without improving myself in my studies, for I can be as happy as the day is long with them, and would ten times rather be at St. Andrew's, attending the classes there, and even those which I was at last year, viz. natural philosophy and mathematics (both of which I am extremely fond of), than at the most beautiful place in the world, with all manner of diversions and amusements. My second objection is, that I would be obliged to keep company with a most abandoned set of people that

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