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was a man who hired an ass to go from this city to Megara. About noon, when the sun was burning hot, both the driver and the hirer sought the shade of the ass, and mutually hindered each other. The owner said that the traveller had hired his ass, and not its shadow. The traveller, in opposition to him, maintained that the whole ass was under his jurisdiction." Having thus commenced his story, he withdrew. The people recalled him, and begged him to finish the story. He said to them: "Ah! how eager you are to hear a story about an ass's shadow, and you will not listen when I speak of your most important affairs!" Philip was not idle while the Athenians were wasting their time in fruitless discussion. Under pretence of attacking the Locrians, he marched his army into Greece, captured Elatæa, a city of Phocis, not very far distant from Athens. The capture of this place, which was one of great importance, opened to Philip a passage into Attica. The Athenians were struck with terror upon the announcement of this event. In his oration on the crown Demosthenes graphically described the scene of dismay and confusion which prevailed at Athens when the news was received. He said:

"Thus successful in confirming the mutual separation of our states, and elevated by these decrees and these replies, Philip now leads his forces forward and seizes Elatæa. You are no strangers to the confusion which this event raised within these walls. Yet permit me to relate some few striking circumstances of our own consternation. It was evening. A courier arrived, and repairing to the presidents of the senate, informed them that Elatæa was taken. In a moment some started from supper, ran to the public place, drove the traders from their stations, and set fire to their sheds; some sent round to call the generals; others clamoured for the trumpeter. Thus was the city one scene of tumult. The next morning, by dawn of day, the presidents summoned the senate. The people were instantly collected, and before any regular authority could convene their assembly, the whole body of citizens had taken their places above. Then the senate entered; the presidents reported their

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advices, and produced the courier. He repeated his intelligence. The herald then asked in form, 'Who chooses to speak?' All was silence. The invitation was frequently repeated. Still no man arose; though the ordinary speakers were all present; though the voice of Athens then called on some man to speak and save her; for surely the regular and legal proclamation of the herald may be fairly deemed the voice of Athens. If an honest solicitude for the preservation of the state had on this occasion been sufficient to call forth a speaker; then, my countrymen, ye must have all risen and crowded to the gallery, for well I know this honest solicitude had full possession of your hearts. If wealth had obliged a man to speak, the three hundred must have risen. If patriotic zeal and wealth united were the qualifications necessary for the speaker, then should we have heard those generous citizens, whose beneficence was afterward displayed so nobly in the service of the state; for their beneficence proceeded from this union of wealth and patriotic zeal. But the occasion, the great day, it seems, called, not only for a well-affected and an affluent citizen, but for the man who had traced these affairs to their very source; who had formed the exactest judgment of Philip's motives, of his secret intentions in this his conduct. He who was not perfectly informed of these; he who had not watched the whole progress of his actions with consummate vigilance, however zealously affected to the state, however blessed with wealth, was in no wise better qualified to conceive or to propose the measures which your interests demanded on an occasion so critical. On that day then, I was the man who stood forth."

In commenting on this passage Mr. Goodrich eloquently says: "Demosthenes gives us a picture of the scene by a few distinct, characteristic touches-the presidents starting from their seats in the midst of supper-rushing into the marketplace-tearing down the booths around it-burning up the hurdles even, though the space would not be wanted till the next day-sending for the generals-crying out for the trumpeter-the council meeting on the morrow at break of

day-the people (usually so reluctant to attend) pouring along to the assembly before the council had found a moment's opportunity to inquire or agree on measures-the entering of the council into the assembly—their announcing the news-their bringing forward the messenger to tell his story; and then the proclamation of the herald, 'Who will speak?'-the silence of all-the voice of their common country, crying out again through the herald, 'Who will speak for our deliverance?'--all remaining silent-when Demosthenes arose, and suggested measures which caused all these dangers to pass away like a cloud!"

An able writer, Mr. Harsha, says that "Demosthenes on this occasion aroused his countrymen with a burst of eloquence which must have made even the iron will of Philip to falter on the throne of Macedon. It was then that he delivered that exciting oration which made the whole assembly cry out with one voice: 'To arms! to arms! Lead us against Philip!'

"Two thousand years afterwards, the same enthusiasm which then, amid their graceful columns, inspired the excitable Athenians, and filled their spacious amphitheatre with a shout that rose to the warm, blue sky of Greece, awoke among sterner men, in a colder climate, and made the plain walls of a church in Virginia echo with a cry as bold and more determined. That was in response to the words of Patrick Henry, the forest-born Demosthenes, when he uttered in tones of thunder those ever-memorable words: 'I know not what course others may take, but, as for me, give me LIBERTY, or give me DEATH!'

"It is in the darkest crises of national struggles for independence, amid storms and tempests, that we see the greatest political orators arise, and hear the thunders of their mighty eloquence, shaking thrones and kingdoms to their centre. It is then that we hear them exclaim with Patrick Henry, 'Whatever others do, I'll fight!' and with John ̧ Adams, at the solemn crisis of the vote of the 4th of July, 1776, 'Independence now, and Independence forever!'"

The Athenians, on the proposal of Ctesiphon, decreed

Demosthenes a crown of gold, in consideration of the many valuable public services which he had rendered the state.

The reward was strongly opposed by his rival and personal enemy, Æschines-one of the greatest orators of that age,who brought a suit against Ctesiphon which was intended to defeat Demosthenes. This famous prosecution was begun about the year 338 B.C.; the trial, however, was delayed eight years. When it came on an immense crowd of people from all parts of Greece went to Athens to witness the contest between the two great intellectual gladiators.

Æschines' speech was powerful and sarcastic. He was twelve years older than his rival, and it is said that his eloquence was distinguished by a happy flow of words, by an abundance and clearness of ideas, and by an air of great ease, which arose less from art than nature. The ancient writers appear to agree in this, that the manner of Æschines is softer, more insinuating, and more delicate than that of Demosthenes, but that the latter is more grave, forcible, and convincing. The one has more of address, and the other more of strength and energy. The one endeavours to steal, the other to force, the assent of his auditors. In the harmony and elegance, the strength and beauty of their language, both are deserving of high commendation, but the figures of the one are finer, of the other, bolder. Demosthenes we see a more sustained effort; in Eschines, "vivid though momentary flashes of oratory."


The following brief extract from Æschines' oration will afford the reader a specimen of his style:

"When Demosthenes boasts to you, O Athenians, of his democratic zeal, examine not his harangues, but his life; not what he professes to be, but what he really is; redoubtable in words, impotent in deeds; plausible in speech, perfidious in action. As to his courage-has he not himself, before the assembled people, confessed his poltroonery? By the laws of Athens, the man who refuses to bear arms, the coward, the deserter of his post in battle, is excluded from all share in the public deliberations, denied admission to our religious rites, and rendered incapable of receiving the

honour of a crown. Yet now it is proposed to crown a man whom your laws expressly disqualify!

"Which think you was the more worthy citizen, Themistocles, who commanded your fleet when you vanquished the Persians at Salamis, or Demosthenes, the deserter? Miltiades, who conquered the barbarians at Marathon, or this hireling traitor? Aristides, surnamed the Just, or Demosthenes, who merits a far different surname? By all the Gods of Olympus, it is a profanation to mention in the same breath this monster and those great men! Let him cite, if he can, one among them all to whom a crown was decreed. And was Athens ungrateful? No! She was magnanimous ; and those uncrowned citizens were worthy of Athens. They placed their glory, not in the letter of a decree, but in the remembrance of a country, of which they had merited well, -in the living, imperishable remembrance!

"And now a popular orator- the mainspring of our calamities, a deserter from the field of battle, a deserter from the city-claims of us a crown, exacts the honour of a proclamation! Crown him? Proclaim his worth? My countrymen, this would not be to exalt Demosthenes, but to degrade yourselves,-to dishonor those brave men who perished for you in battle. Crown him! Shall his recreancy win what was denied to their devotion? This would indeed be to insult the memory of the dead, and to paralyse the emulation of the living!

"From those who fell at Marathon and at Platæa-from Themistocles-from the sepulchres of your ancestors-issues the protesting groan of condemnation and rebuke!"

Æschines did not receive a fifth part of the votes of the judges, and in consequence, by the laws of Athens, he thus became liable to fine and banishment, and accordingly went in exile to Rhodes. He established there a school in rhetoric, in which he read the two orations to his pupils. While his was received with approbation, that of Demosthenes was received with the greatest applause. "What then would you have thought, had you heard the lion himself," said Æschines.

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