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lishman, who, on reading the narratives of those bloody and well-fought contests, could refrain from lamenting the loss of so much British blood spilt in such a cause; or from weeping, on whatever side victory might be declared?"

Certain resolutions were passed by the house in 1784 for the removal of his Majesty's ministers, at the head of whom was Mr. Pitt. These resolutions, however, his Majesty had not thought proper to comply with. A reference having been made to them, Mr. Pitt spoke as follows, replying to Mr. Fox:

"Can anything that I have said, Mr. Speaker, subject me to be branded with the imputation of preferring my personal situation to the public happiness? Sir, I have declared, again and again, only prove to me that there is any reasonable hope-show me but the most distant prospect-that my resignation will at all contribute to restore peace and happiness to the country, and I will instantly resign. But, sir, I declare, at the same time, I will not be induced to resign as a preliminary to negotiation. I will not abandon this situation, in order to throw myself upon the mercy of that right honourable gentleman. He calls me now a mere nominal minister, the mere puppet of secret influence. Sir, it is because I will not become a mere nominal minister of his creation, it is because I disdain to become the puppet of that right honourable gentleman,-that I will not resign; neither shall his contemptuous expressions provoke me to resignation: my own honour and reputation I never will resign.

"Let this house beware of suffering any individual to involve his own cause, and to interweave his own interests, in the resolutions of the House of Commons. The dignity of the house is forever appealed to. Let us beware that it is not the dignity of any set of men. Let us beware that personal prejudices have no share in deciding these great constitutional questions. The right honourable gentleman is possessed of those enchanting arts whereby he can give grace to deformity. He holds before your eyes a beautiful and delusive image; he pushes it forward to your observa

tion; but, as sure as you embrace it, the pleasing vision will vanish, and this fair phantom of liberty will be succeeded by anarchy, confusion, and ruin to the constitution. For, in truth, sir, if the constitutional independence of the crown is thus reduced to the very verge of annihilation, where is the boasted equipoise of the Constitution? Dreadful, therefore, as the conflict is, my conscience, my duty, my fixed regard for the Constitution of our ancestors, maintain me still in this arduous situation. It is not any proud contempt, or defiance of the constitutional resolutions of this house,-it is no personal point of honour,-much less is it any lust of power, that makes me still cling to office. The situation of the times requires of me—and, I will add, the country calls aloud to me that I should defend this castle; and I am determined, therefore, I WILL defend it!"

Pitt's speech on the war in 1803 is supposed to have excelled all his other speeches in "vehement and spirit-stirring declamation." Mr. Fox, in his reply, said: "The orators of antiquity would have admired, probably would have envied, it."

Probably his finest speech is that upon the peace of 1783 and the coalition, "when he so happily closed his magnificent peroration by that noble yet simple figure": "And if this inauspicious union be not already consummated, in the name of my country I forbid the banns."

"But," says an able critic, "all authorities agree in placing his speech on the slave trade, in 1791, before any other effort of his genius; because it combined, with the most impassioned declamation, the deepest pathos, the most lively imagination, and the closest reasoning." Fox is said to have listened to this speech with the greatest interest. Sheridan praised it highly, and Mr. Windham said that he "walked home lost in amazement at the compass, till then unknown to him, of human eloquence."

As a parliamentary orator Mr. Pitt's powers were various. In statement he was perspicuous, in declamation animated. If he had to explain a financial account he was clear and accurate. If he wanted to rouse a just indignation for the

wrongs of the country he was rapid, vehement, glowing, and impassioned. And whether his discourse was argumentative or declamatory, it always displayed a happy choice of expression and a fluency of diction, which could not fail to delight his hearers. So singularly select, felicitous, and appropriate was his language that, it has often been remarked, a word of his speech could scarcely be changed without prejudice to its harmony, vigour, or effect. He seldom was satisfied with standing on the defensive in debate; but was proud to contrast his own actions with the avowed intentions of his opponents. These intentions, too, he often exposed with the most pointed sarcasm; a weapon which, perhaps, no speaker wielded with more dexterity and force than himself.

"Of his eloquence, it may be observed generally, that it combined the eloquence of Tully with the energy of Demosthenes. It was spontaneous; always great, it shone with peculiar, with unequalled splendour, in a reply, which precluded the possibility of previous study; while it fascinated the imagination by the brilliancy of language, it convinced the judgment by the force of argument,-like an impetuous torrent, it bore down all resistance, extorting the admiration even of those who most severely felt its strength, and who most earnestly deprecated its effect. It is unnecessary, and might be presumptuous to enter more minutely into the character of Mr. Pitt's eloquence;-there are many living witnesses of its power-it will be admired as long as it shall be remembered."

The sketch of Mr. Pitt by his political associate and ardent admirer, Mr. Canning, is interesting:

"The character of this illustrious statesman early passed its ordeal. Scarcely had he attained the age at which reflection commences, when Europe with astonishment beheld him filling the first place in the councils of his country, and managing the vast mass of its concerns with all the vigour and steadiness of the most matured wisdom. Dignitystrength-discretion,-these were among the masterly qualities of his mind at its first dawn. He had been nurtured a statesman, and his knowledge was of that kind which always

lay ready for application. Not dealing in the subtleties of abstract politics, but moving in the slow, steady procession of reason, his conceptions were reflective, and his views correct. Habitually attentive to the concerns of government, he spared no pains to acquaint himself with whatever was connected, however minutely, with its prosperity. He was devoted to the state. Its interests engrossed all his study and engaged all his care. It was the element alone in which he seemed to live and move. He allowed himself but little recreation from his labours. His mind was always on its station, and its activity was unremitted.

"He did not hastily adopt a measure nor hastily abandon it. The plan struck out by him for the preservation of Europe was the result of prophetic wisdom and profound policy. But, though defeated in many respects by the selfish ambition and short-sighted imbecility of foreign powers-whose rulers were too venal or too weak to follow the flight of that mind which would have taught them to outwing the storm--the policy involved in it has still a secret operation on the conduct of surrounding states. His plans were full of energy, and the principles which inspired them looked beyond the consequences of the hour. "He knew nothing of that timid and wavering cast of mind which dares not abide by its own decision. suffered popular prejudice or party clamour to turn him aside from any measure which his deliberate judgment had adopted. He had a proud reliance on himself, and it was justified. Like the sturdy warrior leaning on his own battleaxe, conscious where his strength lay, he did not readily look beyond it.

He never

"As a debater in the House of Commons, his speeches were logical and argumentative. If they did not often abound in the graces of metaphor, or sparkle with the brilliancy of wit, they were always animated, elegant, and classical. The strength of his oratory was intrinsic; it presented the rich and abundant resource of a clear discernment and a correct taste. His speeches are stamped with inimitable. marks of originality. When replying to his opponents,

his readiness was not more conspicuous than his energy. He was always prompt and always dignified. He could sometimes have recourse to the sportiveness of irony, but he did not often seek any other aid than was to be derived from an arranged and extensive knowledge of his subject. This qualified him fully to discuss the arguments of others, and forcibly to defend his own. Thus armed, it was rarely in the power of his adversaries, mighty as they were, to beat him from the field. His eloquence occasionally rapid, electric, and vehement, was always chaste, winning, and persuasive—not awing into acquiescence, but arguing into conviction. His understanding was bold and comprehensive. Nothing seemed too remote for its reach or too large for its grasp.

"Unallured by dissipation and unswayed by pleasure, he never sacrificed the national duty to the one or the national interest to the other. To his unswerving integrity the most authentic of all testimony is to be found in that unbounded public confidence which followed him throughout the whole of his political career.

"Absorbed as he was in the pursuits of public life, he did not neglect to prepare himself in silence for that higher destination, which is at once the incentive and the reward of human virtue. His talents, superior and splendid as they were, never made him forgetful of that Eternal Wisdom from which they emanated. The faith and fortitude of his last moments were affecting and exemplary."

The following observations on the style of Fox and Pitt are interesting and instructive:

"Mr. Burke may be said to have belonged to a Triumvirate of eloquence-the greatest, unquestionably, that ever divided among them the empire of mind. Mr. Fox though a much younger man, entered on his parliamentary career, nearly at the same time with Burke. For a while he was willing to rank as his disciple and follower; but in a few years his growing abilities-his great skill in debate-the charm of his disposition and manners-and his superior political connections, gave him the ascendancy, and made

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