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1. The Nineteenth Century. Works of MM. Edouard Alletz and Philaréte Chasles reviewed: Mechanical advancement of the Age-its Speculative philosophy vague and unsettled; Lord Bacon on intellectual progress:-Condition of Religion-of Morals, private and political: Social Organization-Thirst for gold; Poetic influences withdrawn from civilized Life: Tendency of Capital to breed Capital-Education in the Nineteenth Century-Progress of Enlightened Freedom considered, &c., &c................

2. Theodore Korner. By H. T. Tuckerman. Elements of the heroic character-Korner, the youthful hero of modern times-his early friendships, mental and physical training-Life at Vienna; The Tragedy of Zriny; Korner joins the armyLetter to his father-Poem of "Farewell to Life," written while suffering from a wound received in Battle-Poems of "The Oaks" and "Prayer during Battle," &c...

3. Adventures of a Life, Concluded. From the French of Leon Gozlan. Chapters Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth....

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472

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4. History of the Church of England in the Colonies. The Establishment in Virginia-The First Minister-Religious annals of the Settlement, &c.492 5. David Copperfield and Arthur Pendennis, (From the London Times.) Relation of the novel to the age in which we live-The autobiographical

ORIGINAL PROSE ARTICLES (CONTINUED.)

PAGE.

form of composition-Synopsis of these two stories-Parallel between Dickens and Thackeray...499 6. Hungary. Two sides to a question : Erroneous opinions of the North American Review and other writers on the Hungarian struggle: Historical summary of the contest between Austria and Hungary from the 9th Century to the present day. By an officer of the U. S. Army......505 ORIGINAL POETRY.

7. Norman Maurice; or, The Man of the People.
An American Drama. In Five Acts. By W.
Gilmore Simms, author of "The Yemassee."
Act V. Conclusion......

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VOL. XVII.

RICHMOND, AUGUST, 1851.

THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.*

NO. 8.

and his censure of deficiencies, as his suggestions for improvement, are naturally uttered in a more subdued and timid tone than was conIt is scarcely necessary to employ the writings sonant with the genius, or compatible with the of other Authors as a text for any speculations aims of his predecessor. But though the work on this fertile topic, but as we shall take a very of M. Alletz can lay claim to no very eminent different view of the age in which we live from pretensions, his brief notices of scientific and that which has been rendered familiar and al- literary progress are perspicuous, accurate, and most nauseating by the constant repetition of consequently useful for immediate reference; loose eulogies, we have deemed it prudent to in- and the original reflections, dispersed through his augurate our remarks by reference to the essays little volume, are worthy of all attention, being of Authors, who, if they do not altogether accord usually valuable and often striking. with our opinions, are nevertheless as far as ourselves from assenting to the habitual laudations of the Nineteenth century which form the chief characteristic of this golden age.

The work of M. Chasles is a most heterogeneous mélange. It contains a little of nearly every thing from a fairy tale to a philosophical essay. It is a loose gathering from the contents of an over-stuffed portfolio-a repertory of dissimilar scraps and sketches:-yet all of them are

The first of the little works mentioned below, that by M. Alletz, is an unpretending résumé of the intellectual achievements of the Century calculated to reflect more or less light on the which is now flowing by. It is introduced, like subject which has given name to the volume. so many other specimens of our modern litera- The intellectual powers of M. Chasles are of a ture, by a needless review of the intellectual cul- much higher order and larger calibre than those ture of humanity from the earliest ages of the of M. Alletz. Everywhere he displays vivacity, world; it is accompanied by occasional remarks strength, originality, and not unfrequently eccenon the strength and weakness of the times, and tricity also. He has studied deeply, and under by passing suggestions on their wants and neces- all its shifting phases, the day in which he lives. sities; and it is concluded by some anticipations He has estimated its weakness, and appreciated with regard to the probable characteristics of our the causes of its imbecility: he has fathomed its future literature and science. If it did not sug-boasts, and detected their emptiness and vaingest a contrast, which M. Alletz is far from chal-glory: and he has to some extent apprehended lenging, and a comparison which he certainly the connection between its imminent perils and never entertained, we would say that it is an at- the elements of its supposed strength. There is tempt in an humble way to render the same ser- perhaps a morbid asperity in his judgments, and vice to the intellectual phenomena of the Nine-a reluctance or incapacity to include the sunteenth Century, which was rendered with such shine as well as the shade in his field of view; unrivalled ability by Lord Bacon's Advancement but his censure is just, though it may exclude of Learning to those of the Seventeenth. The the more favourable lights of the picture, and it same object is contemplated in both works-to is really refreshing to hearken to well-founded, illustrate at once the capacities, the triumphs, though unmitigated, blame, when our ears have and the defects of contemporary knowledge, and been so long stunned by indiscreet and undisto indicate the road to new intellectual achieve-criminating praise.

ments. The difference of the respective ages, We shall take neither M. Alletz uor M. Chasles and the difference of the men, occasion of course as our guide, or as our authority in the remarks an entire diversity of treatment. M. Alletz which we are about to make-we employ their dwells at greater length and with a just pride works merely as a text on which to hang our upon the glory than on the weakness of the times; sermon. We have not cited these authors as witnesses to be interrogated in Court, nor for the *GENIE DU DIX-NEUVIEME SIECLE, OU ESQUISSE DES PROGRES DE L'ESPRIT HUMAIN, DEPUIS 1800 JUSQU, A purpose of reading their testimony in confirmaNOS JOURS. Par Edouard Alletz. Paulin. Editeur tion of our positions; but have summoned them simply as friends to whom reference may be made by others, if any dissatisfaction is occasioned by the severity of our judgments. Leaving them, then, with this slight introduction to

1842-3. 1 vol. 12 mo.

ETUDES SUR LES HOMMES ET LES MŒURS AU XIX. SIECLE. PORTRAITS CONTEMPORAINS, SCENES DE VOYAGE, SOUVENIRS DE JEUNESSE Par M. Philarete Chaslas, Professeur au Collège de France. Paris. Amyot. [1850.] 1 vol. 12 mo.

VOL. XVII-58

song of unqualified praise which is the pæan of the Century, and may enable us to determine in what modes and to what extent the higher aims of humanity have been injured or neutralized by the incessant pursuit of inferior good.

our readers, we proceed to discuss the important individual gain, has become so nearly the exclusubject which has arrested our attention no less sive and absorbing passion of the civilized comthan theirs. Our notice must of course be cur- munities of the earth, that it renders necessary sory, and confined to broad and general charac- the restoration of a healthier equilibrium between teristics, for, without venturing to repeat the ac- the satisfaction of man's material and his spircustomed hyperbole of declaring that the subject itual necessities. And all that we now propose is endless, we may safely say that it is too am- to do is to take such a survey of the moral and ple, too varied, and too suggestive to permit any-intellectual condition of the times as may save thing like minute treatment within the compass us from being too easily beguiled by the syren of a Magazine essay. If we were to attempt a tolerably complete portraiture of the age, we should be compelled to commence like M. Alletz, with a classification of the different departments of practice and knowledge, which have been created by the exercise of the human fac- On a rigid scrutiny of the times, we shall find, ulties; and, whether we adopted the scanty and that, to whatever department of human specuinsufficient table of that gentleman, or the more lation or practice we direct our attention, the extended and complete, though grotesque, scheme principles on which such practice or speculation of M. Ampère, we should find in the examina- is conducted, are exceedingly vague and unsettion of the numerous branches, material enough tled, and in need of instant and thorough revisto fill volumes instead of pages, and yet neither ion. We are fully aware that this bold declaraexhaust, nor do full justice to the subject. We tion, which we make at the outset, is directly ancontent ourselves, therefore with that more rapid, tagonistical to the current assertions of holiday if less satisfactory, method of procedure, which orators, to the self-complacent vanity of superwill enable us to compress our observations within ficial convictions, and to the habitual arrogance such limits as will not fatigue even the listless of the self-belauding Nineteenth Century; but attention of a lazy reader. it is fully confirmed by the actual condition In portraying the characteristics of the Nine-of the times. The world has suffered itself to teenth Century, there is one side of the picture be dazzled and misled by the multiplicity of brilon which we deem it wholly unnecessary for us liant details which daily demand its attention. to dwell at this time. Every one can enumerate The results of modern science have been numerand magnify for himself, or has heard unceasingly ous, curious, and of immediate practical applienumerated and magnified by others, the me- cation to the common purposes of life;—but, like chanical glories and the material distinctions of the golden apples of Hippomanes, they have withthe age; and, while we neither deny nor under-drawn our attention from the race set before us, rate these, we are not disposed to occupy our so that we have forgotten the true goal, and have time with the repetition of praises incessantly wandered, without our cognizance, out of the repeated before, when much is to be learnt from true path. While referring so habitually to the confining our attention to those unfavorable symp-teachings of Bacon, as promulgating the maxtoms, which are usually treated either as non-ex-ims by which our science is governed, it is sinistent, or as scarcely meriting consideration in any gular, or, at any rate, it is disgraceful, that we general picture of the times. We will leave it to should so far have neglected both the spirit of the Great Industrial Exhibition to proclaim the his philosophy and the constant tenor of his adglories of cotton and iron manufactures and ma- vice, as to have mistaken the pecuniary fruits of chinery-and will examine whether other and science for valid indications of the healthy conhigher elements of social and individual great-dition of the tree from which they spring. His ness have not been sacrified or impaired in at- warnings against this delusion are continual, and taining this dearly-bought excellence in things couched in the strongest terms: "for," says he, material and mechanical. Let it be distinctly "there is not any one art or science, which conunderstood, however, that we decry no form of stantly perseveres in a true and lawful course, excellence; that we entertain the highest admi- till it come to the proposed end or mark, but ever ration of the useful arts, and earnest anticipa- and anon makes steps after good beginnings, tions of their further development; that we un- leaves the race, and turns aside to profit and dervalue none of their triumphs, nor willingly commodity, like Atalanta. overlook any of the multifarious ways in which they may be made to minister to the increase of human happiness, and the larger satisfaction of This occurs in his Essays on the Wisdom of the human wants. All that we object to is that the Ancients; but the same doctrine is continually pursuit of material improvements for the sake of repeated and urgently enforced in all his principal

"Declinat cursus, aurumque volubile tollit."

writings. In the Treatise De Augmentis Scientia- | and systems, and intellectual schemes? What rum he says: "Atque illud semper in animo te- is the harvest which we have reaped from our nendum, quod perpetuo inculcamus, experimenta alleged intellectual greatness in Religion, in Morlucifera etiam adhuc magis quam fructifera am- als, in Politics, in Society, and in Private Life? bienda esse;" Again in the Preface to the No- Growing discords and dissensions in Relivum Organon: "Postremo omnes in universum gion:-the abandonment of old doctrines and monitos volumus, ut scientiæ veros fines cogitent; the substitution of new ones in accordance with nec eam aut animi caussa petant, aut ad conten- the dictates of a vague, unreasoning fantasy :—a tionem, aut ut alios despiciant, aut ad commodum, fretful restlessness and a feverish lust of change: aut ad famam, aut ad potentiam, aut hujusmodi inferiora, sed ad meritum et usus vitæ, eamque in charitaté perficiant et regant?"

understanding subordinated to inconsiderate zeal, and the meek performance of duty exchanged for an ignoraut and verbose faith-a general inWe might also quote numerous passages to difference to every thing but the lifeless shell of the same effect from the Novum Organon itself, the various creeds-the soulless formulæ which from the advancement of Learning, and the other do not so much serve to embody truth as they works of Lord Bacon, but the repetition is need-suffice for a mystic incantation by which to reless, as this doctrine, (however it has been over- cognize the initiated:*-the severance of relilooked and neglected,) is almost the corner-stone, gious prescription from any controlling influence as it certainly is the strength of the true Baco-over our ordinary avocations:f-the impotence nian Philosophy, as contradistinguished from the of such Christianity as is current in the world to mutilated travesty of it which passes current by that venerated name. True it is, that this is a corner-stone which the builders of modern science have too habitually rejected in the construction of their edifice, but at length they are beginning to pay the penalty of such systematic and infatuated rejection.

check the unholy lust of gold, or to direct to ends sincerely, not ostentatiously, charitable the employment of our means;—its utter isolation from all practical authority over our relations to our neighbours in life;—and its almost meaningless restriction to ascetic, splenetic, individual, dreams and fancies. We greedily grasp at the Estimated by their immediate and material rewards which religion offers in the promise of results, the arts and sciences were probably never heaven, and we enter into the service of God in a more flourishing or brilliant condition than with the same spirit with which we seek the they are at present. They subserve all the pur- mines of California. We avail ourselves eagerly poses of Aladdin's lamp; and have proved the of the threatened condemnations of the wicked, magic instruments of the wonderful development in order to assign them to our adversaries, and of our material resources. The augmentation thus pour, in no scriptural sense, coals of fire on of wealth by their aid, and its rapid diffusion the heads of our enemies. We liken the Courts through all the viaducts of national production, of heaven to a Bankrupt Court on earth, and have been such as might have amazed even the recur to both with scarcely dissimilar hopes, wildest credulity. We may well speak in terms of when our own efforts or follies have threatened high laudation of the present intellectual condi- us with temporal ruin. These things, and things tion of the world, and deem that a boundless like these, comprise nearly the whole extent of heritage of good is before us, if we are content the power of Christianity over the mass of our to judge of intellectual achievements by the beg-modern societies, and, with the blind recognition garly and false canon of a monetary scale, and of some inherited or accidentally acquired ritual, to estimate science with the spirit of Mammon. constitute the body and soul of our religion. If man was designed to be a mere money-making machine, then great is Diana of the Ephesians, and greatest of all her worshippers is Demetrius, the silversmith. But if human destiny points to other aims the Nineteenth Century must be judged by other standards. All may be gilding and glitter without, but when we look more closely, and with less sordid vision at the condition of the world, what is the fruit of the aggregate operation of all our arts and sciences,

The above quotations are from Wisd. Anc. xxv. Atalanta or Gain. Præf. Nov. Org. vol. ix, p. 161. De Aug. Sci. lib. v, c ii, vol. viii, p. 276. Ed. B. Montagu: to which add Nov. Org. lib. i, Aph. lxx, xcix, cxxiv, cxxix.

Whither have fled those strong bonds of sympathy, charity, and mutual attraction, by which it was to unite all the sheep of one shepherd into one fold? What weight do we attach to its denunciations against avarice? or what significance

*"Formularia," says Leibnitz, "sunt quædam umbræ veratatis, ac plus minusve ad puram mentis lucem accedunt. Sed pluries contingit ut devotio ritibus suffocetur, lumenque divinum humanis obscuretur opinionibus." Præf. Theod. Leibnitzii Opera. Ed. Duteris. Tom. i, p. 36.

We may look back with regret to a time, when as Livy said of the earlier ages of Rome, "nondum hæc, quæ nunc tenet sæculum, negligentia Deûm venerat; nec interpretando sibi quisque jusjurandum et leges aptas faciebat, sed potius suos mores ad ea adcommodabat."

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