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riotous because he refused. (Plutarch, Lives: Demosthenes, xiv).



ὑπόκρισις. (Delivery! delivery! delivery !) ANDRONICUS (c. 284-c. 204 B.C.) --to Demosthenes, who asked him what were the three chief essentials of rhetoric. The passage in Plutarch runs : Οθεν ἐρομένου αὐτὸν τί πρῶτον ἐν ῥητορικῇ, εἶπεν, Ὑπόκρισις καὶ τί δεύτερον, Ὑπόκρισις· καὶ τί τρίτον, Ὑπόκρισις. (Accordingly when he [Demosthenes] asked him [Andronicus] what was the first thing in rhetoric, he said Delivery; and the second, Delivery; and the third, Delivery)-Lives of the Ten Orators: Demosthenes, 345. Cf. Boswell's Life of Johnson [1824 ed. vol. ii, p. 195], 1773.

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The belly hath no ears.-English

Ventre affamé n'a point d'oreilles.French Proverb.

χρῶ δεξάμενος ἣν ὁ θεὸς δίδωσιν (.. take the gift the gods provide you).

THEOCRITUS, the prophet (c. 290-c. 210 B.C.)-to Pelopidas, alluding to a filly escaped from some horses at pasture, and which was used as a sacrifice (Plutarch, Lives: Pelopidas, 22). See OŰ TOL ἀπόβλητ ̓ ἐστὶ θεῶν ἐρικυδέα δῶρα. Ω ̓Αθηναῖοι, ἆρα γε πιστεύσετε ἂν ἡλίκους ὑπομένω κινδύνους ἕνεκα τῆς παρ' ὑμῖν εὐδοξίας ; (Do you believe, Athenians, how great are the dangers I face to win a good name at Athens?) ALEXANDER THE GREAT (356323 B.C.)-after crossing the Hydaspes, the passage of which was disputed by Porus. (Plutarch, Lives: Alexander, lx).


Carlyle (in his essay on Voltaire), alluding to Voltaire, says, "At all "hours of his history, he might "have said with Alexander : Ο


Athenians, what toil do I undergo to please you!' and the last "pleasure his Athenians demand of "him is, that he would die for "them." (Critical and Miscellaneous Essays 1888 ed., vol. 2, p. 155). Ω γύναι, ̓Αθηναῖοι μὲν ἄρχουσι

τῶν Ἑλλήνων, ἐγὼ δὲ ̓Αθηναίων, ἐμοῦ δὲ σὺ, σοῦ δὲ ὁ υἱὸς, ὥστε φειδέσθω τῆς ἐξουσίας, δι ̓ ἥν, ἀνόητος ὢν πλεῖστον Ελλήνων δύναται. (Woman, the Athenians govern the Greeks, I govern the Athenians, you govern me, and your son governs you: so let him not abuse his power, which, simple as he is, enables him to do more than all the Greeks put together).

ἀλεκτρυόνα. (Crito, I owe a cock to Æsculapius: will you remember to pay the debt?)

THEMISTOCLES (c. 533. 465 Ὦ Κρίτων, τῷ ̓Ασκληπιῷ ὀφείλομεν B.C.)-to his wife, in reference to his son, who used to take advantage of his mother's weakness. (Plutarch, Lives: Cato Major,8). A saying of Cato Major's, (234-149 B.C.) when discoursing of the power of women was πάντες ἄνθρωποι τῶν γυναικῶν ἄρχουσιν, ἡμεῖς δὲ πάντων ἀνθρώπων, ἡμῶν δὲ αἱ γυναῖκες (all men rule their wives; we rule all men; and we are ruled by our wives)-ibid., 8. Cf.:

Les Français gouvernent le monde, et les femmes gouvernent les Français. (The French govern the world, and women govern the French).

Ω ̔Ηράκλεις, ὡς πολλοὺς ὁρῶ στρατηγοὺς, ὀλίγους δὲ στρατιώτας. (By Hercules, how many generals I see-and how few soldiers!)

PHOCION (C. 400-317 B.C.)— alluding to those who pestered him with advice as to what he should do, Mikion having landed at Rhamnus with a large force of Macedonians and mercenaries. (Plutarch, Lives: Phocion, xxv). Cf. Who can direct when all pretend to know?— Goldsmith, The Traveller, 1. 64.

̓͂Ω καλῆς ἡμέρας. (Oh happy day !)

ANTIGONUS (d. 239 B.C.)—words shouted after a victory, when he vomited a quantity of blood, fell sick of a fever, and died. (Plutarch, Lives: Cleomenes, xxx).

Ω Κάτων, φθονῶ σοι τοῦ θανάτου καὶ γὰρ ἐμοὶ σὺ τῆς σαυτοῦ σωτηρίας éplovnoas. (Cato, I grudge thee thy death, for thou hast grudged me thy safety).

JULIUS CAESAR (100-44 B.C.)— referring to Cato (95-46 B.C.) Plutarch, Lives: Cato, xxii).

SOCRATES (468-399 B.C.)—Last words (Plato, Dialogues: Phado, 118 A).

Ω Λιγάριε, ἐν οἵῳ καιρῷ νοσεῖς.

What an unseasonable time you have found for your illness, Ligarius).

BRUTUS (86-42 B.C.)—to Caius Ligarius, when the conspiracy was being formed against Caesar. Ligarius replied: ̓Αλλ' εἴ τι, ὦ Βροῦτε, σεαυτοῦ φρονεῖς ἄξιον, ὑγιαίνω. (Yes; but if you, Brutus, contemplate anything worthy of yourself, I am well.) (Plutarch, Lives: Marcus Brutus, xi).

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or else say what they wish most to hear. Nay, rather, one should say either very little or what it is best for them to hear.)

ÆSOP (A. 570 B.C.)-to Solon, when vexed at Croesus' ungracious reception of the latter; with Solon's reply. (Plutarch, Lives: Solon, xxviii).

Ω τύχη, μικρόν τί μοι κακὸν ἀντὶ τῶν τοσούτων καὶ τηλικούτων ἀγαθῶν ποίησον. (O! fortune, for so many and such great benefits, send me some small evil!) PHILIP OF MACEDON (382-336 B.C.)-on receiving news that a son had been born to him, a great victory gained by his general, Parmenion, and that he had been crowned at the Olympian games. (Plutarch, Apophthegmata: Philip, 3). See πότε ἄρα παυσόμεθα νικῶντες ; Æmilius (c. 229-160 B.C.)-addressing the people after burying his second child, referred to the fickleness of Fortune in similar terms, knowing that she never bestows any great kindness unalloyed and without exacting retribution for it."


. . . ὠδίνειν ὄρος, εἶτα μῦν ἀποτεκεῖν (... the mountain was in labour, and lo! it brought forth a mouse). AGESILAUS (438-360 B.C.)— (Plutarch, Lives: Agesilaus, xxxvi). Cf.

"Quid dignum tanto feret hic promissor hiatu ?

Parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus mus."

(What's coming, pray, that thus he winds his horn?

The mountain labours, and a mouse is born.-Conington). -HORACE. De Arte Poetica, 138. "The mountain has brought forth a mouse."-English saying.

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