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that you must for your internal security fulfil to the utmost the 292d Article of the Constitution of the Monarchy; that the Government will punish, with the utmost rigour of the Law, disturbers, direct or indirect, of the public order, and that the present Campaign will be as active and vigorous as were the Campaigns of 1814, and 1818.


(4.) Proclamation of General De La Torre to the Spanish Army in



Head Quarters, Curaccas, 23rd Marck, 1891. AFTER 4 months of an Armistice which ought to have ended in a Peace, and during the most scrupulous observance of the Treaty on our part, General Bolivar, pending a negotiation to which he had invited us, suddenly terminates it, and announces to me either the continuance of the War, or the admission of pretensions which he knows it is not in my power to admit. Repeated infractions of the Armistice on his part had been overlooked by me, in the hope of concluding a Peace which is so desirable; but he rejects Peace, and calls down new calamities on his Country.

Soldiers! Fresh laurels await you on the field of battle, whither you are going, full of justice, to support your own honour, and that of the Nation, offended at so extraordinary a Declaration of War. To make such a Declaration he must have viewed you with contempt, or he must have forgotten your valour, your victories, and your military virtues. It is necessary, therefore, that you should remind him of them.

I come to place myself at your head, and to share your glory and your hardships. The eyes of the whole World are fixed upon you, and view you with admiration. Prove in this Campaign what you have been in former ones,-brave Soldiers, and Spaniards worthy of that august name.

Soldiers! On the one hand I offer to your view the recompence of your merits; on the other the punishment of your offences. I will be prodigal in rewarding you, but at the same time inexorable in chastising you; but while you continue obedient and valiant, I shall always be your Comrade and Father. MIGUEL DE LA TORRE.

ADDRESS of the Congress of Colombia to the People, on the close of the Session.-14th October, 1821. (Translation.)


THIS day the Congress terminates the august duties with which it was charged, and the Members, your Representatives, retire to their respective homes, confident that they have accomplished the object of your wishes. You are now possessed of such a Constitution as appeared best adapted to the condition of the Country, and calcu

lated to insure to you liberty and prosperity. The Republic has also been consolidated, by the integral and legitimate union of the Territories of which it is now composed. The duties of the Rulers have moreover been defined and circumscribed; your rights now enjoy the most solemn guarantees for their security.

The Territory is divided into Departments, which have received the necessary organization in all the branches of Government. Courts of Justice have been established to settle your personal differences and to punish Delinquents; and, with a view to the common benefit and protection of the Citizens, Tribunals have been established in every Province, for causes of minor importance. The administration of justice influences, in a great measure, the safety of the Citizen, it has therefore deserved the particular consideration of Congress.

Ignorance was the basis on which the Government of Spain built its power, the only basis that could uphold slavery; but a Republic like ours can alone be maintained by the united virtues and knowledge of its Citizens. In order, therefore, to advance this great object, Congress has determined to establish Schools, houses of education, Colleges and Universities, and has further appropriated the property of suppressed religious establishments for its accomplishment.

Nor has the condition of that unhappy body of Men who bore the mark of slavery among you been overlooked. In decreeing, however, the abolition of Slavery, in proscribing for ever this barbarous custom, Congress has not acted unjustly towards innocent Proprietors; it has paid the homage due to reason, without being deaf to the claims of property sanctioned by good faith.

The Public Revenue, greatly decreased by the calamities of a disastrous war, is re-established by economical and salutary Laws; regulations having been adopted, which, whilst they increase the Revenue, will at the same time diminish the burdens that oppressed the People. No longer will you pay the duties of alcabala on the alimentary produce of your industry; the import duties have been lessened, as much as possible, and those on exports have been considerably reduced.

The distilling of spirituous liquors is free, and this freedom, which removes such heavy vexations from the Public, must hereafter prove a fruitful source of wealth and prosperity. By the Revenue Laws now in force, you will be enabled to contribute to the wants of the State on a moderate and equal scale, whilst at the same time you will be enabled to provide for your own wants with ease. As, however, the Government is still compelled to incur increased and unavoidable expences, Congress has decreed a direct Contribution, proportioned to the means of the Contributors, which will be payable by all, and collected without any additional expence.

Such have been the labours of your Representatives. They trust that

they have fulfilled your intentions: on you, therefore, depends what is still wanting to consolidate Colombia, and raise her to the high pitch of power and prosperity to which she is destined. Live in intimate and brotherly union; befriend each other, and admit not into your hearts either jealousy or rivalry. These are the fatal arms which your Enemies have unceasingly wielded, in order to spread discord among you. Union will make you strong, and put an end to a cruel war of 11 years' duration. Dissention will deprive you of repose, and of the genuine benefits to be derived from society. United you are invincible -disunion is the only Enemy you have to fear.

Obey, therefore, those Laws which yourselves have framed, for they were dictated by your Representatives; and respect those Magistrates who have been elected by your own suffrages. Think of the glory of Colombia, when your happiness and welfare shall be secured. Remember that nothing, at its commencement, is perfect, and that the influence of time and experience is powerful. Law is the boundary of freedom, which disappears when the Laws become nerveless. A free press, that precious gift, inseparable from justice and civil liberty, is the proper medium for fixing the opinions and expressing the sentiments of a free People. Use it with that moderation which is prescribed by the Laws, and you will thus preserve your own rights unimpaired; you will restrain your Rulers within the limits of their authority; and you will obtain the improvements suggested by experience and necessity.

Your Representatives will acquaint you with the motives which have influenced them in what they have done; they will explain to you what you do not understand, and make known to you the causes of their decisions. They will act so as to merit your confidence; and their candour and good faith will tranquillize you.

Despise the clamours of ignorance and fanaticism;-they aim at your disunion; they would bring you back to dependence and slavery, to debasement and oppression. To these the efforts of your Enemies still tend. Possibly they will tell you that Congress has sought to disseminate impious and irreligious maxims; but know that your Representatives have merely sought to free religion from the abuses under which it laboured, without touching its essential points. The God of those Enemies is interest, and their religion is confined to the idolatrous worship of their own prejudices. Judge the Congress by its works, compare these with your own wishes and wants, and then decide for yourselves. He who seeks to disunite you, is an Enemy, and you should treat him as a disturber of the public peace.

Congress has been actuated by no other than the anxious wish of rendering you happy. To do this, it has adopted those very principles which yourselves long since promulgated, and which have uniformly constituted the happiness of other Nations. Possibly it may not have accomplished

all that could have been wished; but, it can assure you that it has done all that was in its power. Your welfare was its sole object, and will prove its only recompence.

Done in the General Congress of the Republic of Colombia, in the Town of Rosario de Cucuta, this 14th day of October, 1821.



ARIA,} Deputy Secretarică.

LETTER of the Spanish General O'Donoju to the Governor of Vera Cruz, relative to the termination of Hostilities between the Armies of Spain and Mexico.-Cordova, 26th August, 1821.


Cordova, 26th August, 1821.

I ENCLOSE to your Excellency a Copy of a Treaty agreed upon between myself and the Generalissimo of the Imperial Army*: its object is the happiness of both Spains, and to put an end, once for all, to the terrible disasters of a civil war. It is based on the rights of Nations:-the intellectual spirit of the age, the general opinion of civilized Nations, the liberality of our Cortes, the beneficent intentions of our Government, and the paternal affection of our King, are its guarantees. Humanity shudders at contemplating the dark picture of Fathers, Sons, Brothers, and Friends, persecuting and destroying one another; of Provinces, which, though inhabited by Men of the same origin, the same religion, protected by the same Laws, speaking the same Language, and observing the same Customs, are destroyed and laid waste, by those who, a few months before, industriously cultivated them, trusting to the fertility of the soil for the sustenance of their Families;-happy so long as they enjoyed Peace; but wretched, poor, houseless, and deprived of every thing, since the commencement of the war.

None but a heart filled with gall and venom can look upon such horrors without shuddering. And, to a well principled mind, what sacrifice will not be acceptable, so that misery, bloodshed, death, and destruction may be averted by it? These, Señor Governor, are the considerations which would have induced me to sign the Treaty that will cement the eternal Alliance of two Nations, destined by Providence, and designed by their position to be great, and to occupy a distinguished place in the World, even though I were not, as I certainly am, convinced, of the justice which prompts every Community to assert its liberty, and to defend that liberty as Individuals would their lives,— of the uselessness of whatever efforts may be made, of whatever bar•See State Papers, Vol. 1821-1822, Page 431.

riers may be opposed, to restrain this sacred torrent, when once it has entered upon its majestic and sublime course,-and of the impossibility of opposing or altering the Laws of Nature. She has set bounds to Nations; she regulates the movements of great bodies; she has not given us senses capable of receiving impressions from a distance; and if in infancy, she provides us with a tender mother to nourish us; in childhood, and in youth with Fathers (and Masters to rear and guide us; in Manhood, she gives us reason and strength to be independent, and frees us from restraint. The moral World is regulated by the same rules as the physical. Such evident principles could not escape the penetration of the King, and the wisdom of Congress. Otherwise, how could we reconcile the progress of the Constitution in Spain with the ignorance which it was necessary to suppose existed among the Spanish People, for them to be unacquainted with these truths? In fact, before my departure from the Peninsula, the Representatives of the People were occupied,―at one time, in laying the foundation of Mexican Independence; at another, its bases were proposed and approved, in one of their Committees, with the assistance of the Secretaries of State; nor was it doubted that, before the Cortes should close their ordinary Session, this business, so important to the two Spains, would be concluded; a business in which the bonour of both is concerned, and on which the eyes of all Europe are fixed. The Spaniard who, either from particular views, or private interest, should not share the common opinion of his Fellow Countrymen, and should fail to perceive what so much concerns him to know, is very limited in mind: he has no settled or just idea of what is required from his Nation to constitute the happiness of its People, and is unworthy of so generous, liberal, and just a Country. But the Mexicans, to whom the temperature of their climate has given a lively and ardent imagination, and who, moreover, on account of the immense space which separates them from the Peninsula, were without accurate information, declared themselves independent, and assumed a hostile aspect; believing that the Men to whom they owe their religion, their greatness, and their ability to figure in the civilized world, were about to commit the injustice of making an attempt against their liberty; when those very Men, in support of their own, had just exhibited themselves the terror of the Universe, an example of valour and constancy, and the scourge of the most colossal power to be found in history. They met indeed, with some resistance, but this must be considered as the result of a fidelity carried to an extreme of exalted sentiments of honour, and an inflexible bravery. But the scene is changed: Mexicans and Europeans know each other, and they also know, that if excesses have been committed on both sides, even these have originated in the virtues which exalt them. They again wish to become Brothers; all seek to draw closer the bonds of their Union; their connexion will be intimate, and the rights of both shall be faithfully respected. To this we pledge

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