Page images
PDF
EPUB
[merged small][ocr errors]

mostly Prussians, 9; support the
government, 18, 24, 27, 29, 33, 36,
38; held most of the important
offices under Bismarck, 50.

- Frederick III.; his short reign, ii. 30.
- Fortschritt; origin of, ii. 8; a part

-

-

separate and form National Lib-
eral party, 9; the rest entirely
Prussian, 9; at first hostile to Bis-
marck, 11; become more friendly
during the Kulturkampf, 18; but
entirely hostile after 1876, 20, 24;
unite with the dissident National
Liberals to form the Deutsch
Freisinnige party, 29.

- Guelphs, party of, ii. 10.

-Germanic Confederation, i. 234.
- Hohenlohe - Schillingsfürst; Statt-
halter of Alsace-Lorraine, i. 376;
appointed Chancellor, ii. 6.
- Homogeneousness; lack of, ii. 46.
Individualism; intensity of, ii. 47.
- Irreconcilables, ii. 120.

[ocr errors]

- Judicial system. See Courts of Law.
- Kulturkampf, ii. 12; the May Laws,
14; the reconciliation with Rome,
23, 26, 27, 29-30.

- Lasker, ii. 27, n. 1.

-

Legislative centralization and execu-
tive decentralization, i. 243.
-Leo XIII.; his reconciliation with
Bismarck, ii. 23, 26, 27, 29-30.
- Liberal Vereinigung; formation of,
ii. 27; unites with the Fortschritt,
29.

- Liberals; their failure to unite Ger-
many in 1848, i. 236. See National
Liberals, Fortschritt, etc.
-Lorraine. See Alsace-Lorraine.
May Laws, ii. 14; repeal of, 26, 27.
Monarchy; German theory of, ii. 54.
- National Liberals; origin of, ii. 9;
the only national party, 10; sup-
port Bismarck after 1866, 11, 18;
begin to disagree with Bismarck,
19-20; offered a portfolio, 21;
Bismarck becomes hostile to, 22;
divide on the protective tariff, 24,
25; and break up, 25-27; remnant
continue to support Bismarck, 27,
29; oppose the anti-socialist law
in 1890, 32; support the army bill
in 1893, 38; their party club, 51.
- Newspapers; local circulation of, ii.
47; their relation to the parties,
48.

-

← North German Confederation, i. 240.

Germany:-

-Officials; small number of federal,
i. 244.

-Parties; causes of their subdivision;
lack of homogeneousness of the
people, ii. 46; intense individual-
ism, 47; Bismarck's dislike of
parties, 48; his treatment of the
press, 48; lack of responsibility of
parties, 50; the party clubs, 51;
parties based on social distinctions,
63.

-Parties; history of, origin and charac-

ter of the Conservatives, the Fort-
schritt, Free Conservatives, and the
National Liberals, ii. 8; National
Liberals the only national party,
10; the irreconcilable parties,
Poles, Guelphs, Danes, Alsatians,
Social Democrats, 10; parties in
Empire and States similar, 11;
after 1866 moderate parties sup-
port Bismarck, 11; the Centre,
13; effect of the Kulturkampf on
parties, 15-18; first disagreements
between Bismarck and National
Liberals (1875), 19; portfolio
offered to Bennigsen (1877), 21;
Bismarck's change of base, 22;
the Reichstag rejects the anti-
socialist bill and is dissolved, 22;
the protective tariff (1879), 24;
confusion of parties, 24; reconcili-
ation with the Church, 23, 26, 27,
29-30; breaking up of the Na-
tional Liberals (1880), 25, 27; the
Conservatives support the govern-
ment, 27; weakening of the middle
parties, 28; the Reichstag rejects
the septennate and is dissolved
(1887), 29; growth of the Social
Democrats, 31; anti-socialist bill
rejected, 32; fall of Bismarck
(1890), 34; Caprivi's relations to
the parties, 35 et seq.; the com-
mercial treaties (1891), 36; the
Prussian Education Bill (1892),
37; the Reichstag rejects the
army bill (1893), and is dissolved,
38; results of the election, 39;
hostility of the south, 40; the dis-
integration of parties, 41; decrease
of the moderate elements, 43-44;
failure of the government to con-
trol the Conservatives, 43; dissen-
sions among the ministers (1894),
44; defeat of anti-revolutionary
bill, 45.

Germany :-
- People; lack of homogeneousness of,
ii. 46; intense individualism of, 47.
-Poles; party of, origin, ii. 10; sup-

port William II., 35, 39.
-Press; Bismarck's treatment of, ii.
48.

-Prussia; her influence in the Diet, i.

236; declines the imperial crown
in 1849, 237; war with Austria in
1866, 240; reorganizes Germany,
240-41; her privileged position in
the Empire, 246-49, 266; some-
times outvoted in the Bundesrath,

Germany :-

his quarrel with Bismarck, 33;
attempts to rule in person, 4-6;
becomes the centre of political in-
terest, 34; his commercial treaties,
36; education bill, 37; army bill,
38; anti-revolutionary bill, 44;
unpopularity of his course in the
south, 40; his failure to make
alliances with any party and its
effects, 41 et seq.; his character,
52; his desire for personal promi-
nence, 53; his theory of the mon-
archy, 54; its dangers, 54.

261; Prussian and imperial-Zollverein; in the Germanic Con-
powers interwoven, 275, 279; ii.
2-3.
-Reichstag; its term, i. 252; suffrage
for, 252; electoral districts, 252-
53; majority vote required, 253;
non-payment of members, 253-54;
committees in, 255; its powers,
256; dissolution of, 257; Chancel-
lor not responsible to, 257-59; its
power of interpellation, 258; its
influence negative rather than
positive, 256-57; its division into
groups, ii. 7; supremacy of, un-
likely, while conflict of classes
continues, 64.
-Richter, Eugene; the Radical leader,
ii. 29.

- Roon, General von; at the head of
the Prussian cabinet, ii. 17.
-Schleswig-Holstein; quarrel over, i.
239; annexation of, by Prussia,
240.
-Septennate; struggles over, ii. 26, 29,
38; and see i. 256, n. 4.

- Social-Democrats; origin of, ii. 10;
their growth, 31, 44, 55; war of
Bismarck with, 31-33; of William
II. with, 44, 45.
-States; former subdivision of, i. 232;
representation in the Diet of the
Germanic Confederation, 234-36;
their inequality of rights in the
Empire, 246 et seq., 284-85; their
conventions with Prussia, 247.
-Stauffenberg, ii. 29.
Vice-Chancellor, i. 280.
Vienna; treaty of, i. 234.
William I.; his conflict with the
Prussian parliament, i. 239; his
sympathy with the Conservatives,
ii. 17; his adherence to Bismarck,
4, 17; his death, 30.

[blocks in formation]

federation, i. 238; in the North
German Confederation, 241.
Giolitti; his cabinet, i. 202–3.
Gneist; his views on political history
of England, France, and Germany, i.
65, n. 2; on parliamentary gov-
ernment, 309; plan of local gov-
ernment in Prussia, 309; his satis-
faction with the results, 332.
Goodnow, F. J.; his views on French
administrative law, i. 59, n. 3.
Gotha, Saxe-Coburg; government of,
i. 358.
Grévy, Jules; President of the French
Republic, i. 81, 84, n. 1.
Groups. See Parties.

Hamburg; government of, i. 368;
right to remain a free port, 249.
Hanover; annexed by Prussia, i. 240.
Hanse Cities; government of, i. 368;
Senates of, 369; Bürgerschaft in,
370.

Hesse-Cassel; annexed by Prussia, i.
240.

Hesse-Darmstadt; its relation to the
North German Confederation, i. 241;
government of, 347.
History; comparison of English and
French, i. 47 et seq.; of English and
German, ii. 57 et seq. See, also, the
different countries.
Hohenlohe - Schillingsfürst. See Ger-

[blocks in formation]

a referendum, 5. See, also, Prussia, | Hungary :
Austria, Hungary.

Houses of Parliament. See Chambers;

and see the different countries.
Hungary. See, also, Austria-Hungary.
- Andrassy; his cabinet, ii. 153.
Banffy; his cabinet, ii. 158; his
quarrel with Kalnoky, 168.
-Bitto; his cabinet, ii. 154.
- Cabinet. See Ministers.

- Catholics, ii. 125, 128, 138, 139.
- Chancery, at Vienna, ii. 137.
- Churches; Catholic, ii. 125, 128, 138,
139; Protestant, 128, 138, 139;
Orthodox Greek, 125, 138, 139;
United Greek, 125, 138, 139.

- Compact of 1867. See Austria-Hun-
gary.

- Congregations, of the counties, ii.
129, 143.

- Constitution; the ancient, ii. 128;
laws of 1848, 132; the compact of
1867, 136.

Counties; old organization of, ii. 129–

30; present government of, 143.
- Croatia; its history, ii. 125, 133, 146;
its representation in the Parlia-
ment, 139, 140-41; its connection
with Hungary, 148; its diet, 149;
the Ban, 150.

- Deak, Francis; forced into the back-
ground in 1848, ii. 133; carries the
compact of 1867, 136; his tale of
the eels, 142; leads the Parlia-
ment, 153; retires from public
life, 154.

-Deputies. See Table of Deputies.
- Ferdinand; his struggle and abdica-
tion, ii. 132-33.

[ocr errors]

- Francis Joseph; ascends the throne,
ii. 133; his policy after 1848, 134;
makes the compact of 1867, 136.

- Free Cities, ii. 129-30.

- Germans, ii. 126. See, also, Transyl-
vania.

Golden Bull, ii. 128, 137.

Greek Church. See Churches.
- Habsburgs; the struggle with, ii.

131.
-History; the struggle with the Habs-

burgs, ii. 131; the revolt of 1848,
132; the struggle of 1849-66,
134-36; the compromise of 1867,
136. See History of parties.
- Insurrection; right of, ii. 129, 137.
Jelacic; Ban of Croatia, ii. 133.
-Joseph II.; his struggle with the
Magyars, ii. 131.

- King, the; his powers, ii. 137-38.
- Kossuth; his career in 1848-49, ii.
134; oppose the compromise of
1867, 136, 155.

-

- Language; laws concerning, ii. 145,
149, 151, 165.

- Local government. See Counties.
- Lonyay, ii. 154.

- Magnates. See Table of Magnates.
-Magyars, ii. 126; their struggle for

liberty, 131 et seq.; their treat-
ment of the other races, 144-52,

161.

-Ministers; their powers, ii. 138;
their responsibility to Parliament,
137-39, 157-58; never forced to
resign by change of party in Par-
liament, 158-59.

- Nobility, ii. 127, 130.

- Orthodox Greeks, ii. 125, 138, 139.
- Parliament; its composition of old,
ii. 129; at present, 139-42.

Parties; absence of two great par-
ties and reasons therefor, ii. 159-
61.

- Parties, history of; Andrassy's min-
istry, 1867, supported by the Deak
Club, ii. 153; his successors Lon-
yay, Sclávy, Bitto, 154; Deak's
party falls to pieces, 154; the Left
accepts the compact, 1875, and
Tisza comes to power supported
by the union of Deak's party and
the Left, 154-55; Tisza's govern-
ment, 1875-90, 155-56; cabinets
of Szapary, Wekerle, and Banffy,
the religious bills, 156-58.

- Protestants, ii. 128, 138, 139.
Races, ii. 124; Roumanians, 125-26;

Slavs, 125; Germans, 126; Mag-
yars, 126; Saxons, 126; Szeklers,
126; race conflicts in 1848, 132-34;
treatment of other races by the
Magyars, 144-45, 151; its results,
152, 161; danger from the Slavs,
160.

-Roumanians, ii. 125-26, 153.
-Saxons, ii. 126. See, also, Transyl-
vania.

Sclavy; his cabinet, ii. 154.

Slavs, ii. 125, 153, 160. See, also,
Croatia.

-Suffrage; for Table of Deputies, ii.
141; for the Croatian Diet, 150.
Szeklers, ii. 126.

Table of Deputies; old organization,
ii. 129-30; present organization,

Hungary:-

Italy:

of, 170.

140; suffrage for, 141; disqualifi-Cities; government of, i. 169; debts
cations, 142; term, 142; proce-
dure, 142, n. 3.

- Table of Magnates, ii. 129, 139, 140;
opposes the religious bills, 157-58.
-Tisza; accepts the compact of 1867
and comes to power 1875, 155;
his rule until 1890, 155-56; his
reforms of local government, 143,

155.
-Transylvania; its history, ii. 127,
145; government of, 146.
-United Greek Church, ii. 125, 138,
139.

See

Initiative; by popular action.
Switzerland.
Interpellations in France, i. 117-26;
in Italy, 210; in Germany, 258; in
Prussia, 300; in Austria, ii. 89; in
Hungary, 159; in Switzerland, 200,

n. 3.
Irreconcilables; in France, i. 102-5;
in Italy, 205-6; in Germany, ii. 120;
in Austria, 121; in Hungary, 161;
absence of, in Switzerland, 334-35.
Italy:-

-

-

-

- Accounts; Court of, i. 167, n. 4.
-Administrative Courts, i. 173-76.
- Administrative system; its centrali-
zation, i. 162; contrast between
theory and practice, 163; difficul-
ties caused by interference of depu-
ties, 227.

Arbitrary power, i. 162-164, 173–78.
Aspromonte, i. 190.

Bank scandals, i. 202–3.

Brigandage, i. 162, 194, 195, 229.
Budget; committee on, i. 207-9.
- Cabinets; lack of harmony in, i. 212,
213; duration of, 211; relation to
the chambers, 152, 153-54; not
hampered as much as in France by
committees, 207-210; or by inter-
pellations, 210; control of legisla-
tion by, 225.

-Cairoli; first cabinet of, i. 164, 195;
second cabinet of, 197; a member
of the Pentarchy, 199, n. 1.

- Camorra, the, i. 194, 216.
-Cassation. See Courts.

- Catholic. See Church.

- Cavour; his plan for Italian federa-
tion, i. 149; his doctrine of a free
church in a free state, 179; his
relation to the parties, 189.

- Centre party, i. 189.

-Chamber of Deputies, i. 156; suf-
frage for, 157; electoral districts,
157-59; qualification of members,
159; term, 159; sessions, 160;
dissolution, 153; President, 160;
attempt to copy English procedure,
160; Uffici, or sections, 207; Com-
mittees, 207-9; process of three
readings, 210; Interpellations,
210; control over administration,
219, 225; relation of ministers to
153-54.

- Charles Albert; grants the Statuto,
i. 148.

-Church, the, i. 178 et seq.; doctrine
of free church in a free state, 179;
how far carried out, 180; suppres-
sion of monastic orders, 181; con-
version and taxation of property,
182; annexation of the Papal
States, 183; law of the Papal
Guarantees, 183; the Pope's re-
fusal to acquiesce, 185; question
of the Temporal Power, 186.

-

-

- Clericals; their attitude, i. 205.
-Clientage; its origin, i. 193, 215 et
seq.

-Cliques; political, i. 215; growth of,
216; their political influence, 217-
19.
-Coalitions; between Right and Left,
i. 198, 201.

Communes; government of, i. 169.
-Committees; in parliament, i. 207-
210.

-Conflicts of jurisdiction, i. 173-174.
Constitution. See Statuto.
-Courts of Law. See Judicial system.
- Council of State, i. 167, n. 4; acted
formerly as a court of conflicts,
173-74; now as an administrative
court, 174-75.

- Criminal Law; state of, i. 163.
- Crispi; a minister in 1877-78, i. 194–
95; a member of the Pentarchy,
199, n. 1; a minister in 1887, 199;
his first cabinet, 200; his last
cabinet, 203; his remark on pa-
tronage, 219.
-Depretis; his first two cabinets, i.

193-95; his third cabinet (1878),
197; his later cabinets, 198; his
unparliamentary tactics, 199, 213.
-Deputies; qualification of, i. 159;

their relation to the cliques, 218;

Italy:

-

Italy:-

their control of patronage, 219, Parliament. See Senate and Cham-

227.
-Electoral districts, i. 157-59.
-Finances; control of deputies over,
i. 208-9; bad condition of, 230.
Franchise. See Suffrage.
Garibaldi, i. 148, 150, 190.
- Gioletti; his cabinet, i. 202-3.
- Groups. See Parties.
-Interpellations, i. 210.
-Jesuits. See Church.

-Judicial system; decentralization of,
i. 170; the five Courts of Cassation,
170; jurisdiction over official acts,
171-76; administrative law, 173;
administrative courts, 174; con-
flicts of jurisdiction, 173-74;
weakness of precedent, 175; weak-
ness of the judicial system, 176;
protection of judges, 177; need of
more powerful courts, 228; courts
have no power to hold statutes un-
constitutional, 151, n. 1, 175.
-King, the, i. 152; his power and
influence, 152-153.

-Left; formation of, i. 190; minis-

-

tries of, in 1862 and 1867, 190;
comes to power in 1876, 191; its
policy, 191 et seq.

-Leo XIII.; his refusal to abandon
the Temporal Power, i. 185.
- Liberation; struggle for, i. 146-50;
its dramatic character, 148.

- Local government, i. 168-70; prov-
inces, 169; prefects, 169; com-
munes, 169; syndics, 169; elected
councils, 169.

Mafia, i. 194, 216.

Mazzini, i. 148, 194, 215.
- Mentana, i. 190.

Minghetti; leaderof the Right, i. 192.
Ministers, i. 153; their relation to
the King, i. 152-53; to the Cham-
bers, 153-54. See Cabinet.

- Monastic Orders. See Church.

- Naples; disorganization in, i. 215;
cliques in, 217-18.

-Nicotera; his policy in 1876, i. 194;

[ocr errors]

--

ber of Deputies.

-Parliamentary government; inver-
sion of, i. 225.

-Parties; their condition, i. 204;
causes of subdivision of, 205 et
seq.; national parties depend on
local issues, 224; their tendency
to degenerate into cliques, 214-
19; prominence of personal poli-
tics in, 193, 199, 214.

-Parties; history of; Cavour sup-
ported by great central party, i.
189, which breaks up at his death,
190; the Right, with short inter-
missions, governs until 1876, 190-
91; but is not solidly united, 192;
the Left comes to power, 191;
effects of the change, 191-93;
first cabinets of Depretis, 194-95;
the Cairoli - Zanardelli cabinet,
195; difference in the policies of
these ministries, 196; the third
cabinet of Depretis, 197; the sec-
ond cabinet of Cairoli, 197; the
Cairoli - Depretis cabinet, 197;
Depretis' long tenure of office,
198; his alliance with the Right
or Transformismo, 198; the Pen-
tarchy, 199; his unparliamentary
tactics, 199; Crispi's first cabinet,
200; his fall, 201; first ministry
of Rudini, 201; of Giolitti, 201-2;
Crispi's restoration and fall, 203-4;
second cabinet of Rudini, 204.
Patron and client. See Clientage.
- Patronage, i. 167; abuse of, 167;
controlled by deputies, 219, 227.
See, also, Cliques.
Pentarchy, the, i. 199.

-

-

-

- Personal politics; prominence of, i.
193, 199, 214.

- Pius IX., i. 149; his refusal to aban-
don the Temporal Power, 185.
- Pope. See Church.

- Prefect, i. 169.

[blocks in formation]

a member of the Pentarchy, 199,-Republicans; accept the monarchy,
n. 1; becomes minister again in
1891, 201.

Offices; appointment to, i. 166.
Officials; exemption from suit and
prosecution, i. 172.

Ordinances; power to make, i. 165;
legislation by, 165-66.

-Papal States; annexation of, i. 183.

i. 194.

-Right; formation of, i. 190; in
power, 190; its fall, 191; its lack
of harmony, 192; coalition with
Depretis, 198; with the Left in
1891, 201.

--

-Rudini; his first cabinet, i. 201;
second cabinet, 204.

« PreviousContinue »