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pected that a little alteration or improvement will be made io enable them to be handled more easily or render them more effective.
(2) With regard to invented sayings, or those for which no authority has been found (e.s., L'état, c'est moi). Sainte-Beuve puts their case very strongly when he writes (Causeries du Lundi, vol. xiii, pp. 107-8), referring to a mot of Villars which seems never to have been uttered by him .. " le mot est si bien dans sa nature que, s'il ne l'a pas dit, il a dii le dire In these cases the Italian saying, “ se non è zero è ben trovato, is often very appropriate ; and, on the other hand, as Boileau writes (L'Art poétique, iii, 48), “ Le vrai peut quelquefois n'élre pas vraisemblable." So that there is something to be said in favour of these (from one point of view useful) inven. tions after all.
(3) There is often a very good reason for a saying being fathered on the wrong person. Molière's words (Amphytrion, act ii, sc. 2) seem very appropriate here:
“ Tous les discours sont des sotlises,
Partant It'un homme sans éclat:
Si c'étoit un grand qui parlåt." Pope, too, expresses a similar idea in his Essay on Criticism, pt. ii, 11. 220-1.
But let a Lord once own the happy lines,
How the wit brightens ! how the style retines!” But, without either adopting M. Fournier's apparently pessimistic attitude towards historic sayings in general, or going to the other extreme and accepting them all without question, the compiler's object in the following pages has been to bring together, in their original language, what he hopes may be considered a fairly representative collection of historic savings, real or apocryphal, improved or altered, rightly or wrongly attributed, as the case may be; answering the questions by whom said, and under what circumstances ; giving authorities as far as he has been able to ascertain them, varying versions, and, by means of frequent cross-references, enabling interesiing comparisons to be made between them. The task of selection has been by no means an easy one, for a similarsized volume might have been easily filled with sayings in any one of the six languages chosen.
Bon mots, as such, have not been included, for as Voltaire
* Tacitus (Annals, I, 74) has it : Quia zera erant, dicta etiam credebantur."
writes (Essai sur les meurs et l'esprit des nations, ch. cxlv). “ La plupart des bons mots ne sont que des redites.” This criticism, as will be seen in these pages, applies also, although perhaps in a less degree, to many historical sayings.
A number of “dying words” have been included, not so much because of any particular intrinsic merit they may possess, but rather on account of the interest they acquire from their having been uttered (or said to have been uttered) by famous persons. With regard to these M. Fournier writes (p. 377, idem) Défies-vous des mots prêtés aux mourants. La mort n'est point bavarde : un soupir, un regard nové dans les ombres suprêmes, un geste de la main se portant vers le cour, quelques paroles confuses, mais surtout sans déclamation, voilà seulement ce qu'elle permet à ceux qu'elle a frappés." Still, if correctly reported, they are likely to proceed from the heart of the speakers. Gaunt : “(), but they say, the tongues of dying men
Enforce attention, like deep harmony;
Shakespere, Richart II, II, i, 11. 5-8. On the whole, it is perhaps better, while keeping an open mind on the point of their accuracy, to value historical sayings like history- for what they teach. Rousseau (Emile, 1838 ed., vol. i, p. 307) writes: " Les anciens historiens sont remplis de vues dont on pourroit faire usage quand même les faits qui les présentent seroient faux. Les hommes sensés doivent regarder l'histoire comme un tissu de fabiles, dont la morale est très appropriée au caur humain.” Here are the sayingsfables or otherwise, partly true or wholly false—it is for my readers to draw their own moral from any of them, or draw none at all as they please. For my part, to conclude these desultory remarks-as they began --- with a quotation,
I cannot tell how the truth may be ;
Sir W. Scott, Lay of the Last Minstrel, ca. ii, st. 23. It only remains for me to express my indebtedness and thanks for the valuable assistance rendered me by Mr. Swan Sonnenschein, Mr. 11. A. Peplow, and Mr. F. Thorold Dickson, of the Inner Temple, Barrister-at-Law.
Errors there must be in such a compilation, and particulars of any such that may be noticed will be gratefully received if forwarded through the publishers.
ENGLISH AND AMERICAN SAYINGS
a battle of giants. DUKE OF WELLINGTON (17691852) — in conversation with Samuel Rogers, referring to the battle of Waterloo (June 18, 1815): in allusion to the Legendary Gigan. tomachia of classical (post-Homeric) antiquity : cf. Plato, Republic 378 C; Horace, Odes iii, 1, 5-8, iii, 4, 49-58, where the giants are tioned by name. A bishop ought to die on his
legs. John Woolton, Bishop of Exeter (1535-94), --Last words. See Decet imperatorem, &c; Un roi de France peut mourir, &c. It is related of Siward, Earl of Northumberland (d. 1055) that, when near his end, he put on his armour, saying that “it became not a man to die like a beast ;” and died standing. (Percy Anecdoles, vol ii, p. 102). A bishop should die preaching.
BISHOP Jewell (1522-71) --in reply to his friends, who were endeavouring to persuade him to desist from pulpit services owing to his state of health (Percy Anecdotes, vol. iii, p. 285).
a born gentleman. DR SAMUEL JOHNSON (170984):
Adventitious accomplishments may be possessed by all ranks, but one may easily distinguish the born gentleman.” Above all things-Liberty.
JOHN Selden (1584.1654) Motto placed by him upon his books,
a burglar of others' intellects. BENJAMIN DISRAELI [Earl of Beaconsfield] (1804-81)--in a speech in the House of Commons, May 15, 1846, referring to Sir Robert Peel. Preceded by “ His life has been one great Appropriation Clause"; and followed by “ Search the index of Beatson from the days of the Conqueror to the termination of the last reign, there is no statesman who has commitied political petty larceny on so great a scale." . a city of cities, an aggrega
tion of humanity, that probably has never been equalled in any period of the history of the world, ancient
modern. BENJAMIN DISRAELI [Earl of Beaconsfield] (1804-81)-in a speech
in the House of Commons, May 1, 1873, referring to London. A Conservative Government is
an organized hypocrisy. BENJAMIN DISRAELI, [Earl of Beaconsfield] (1804-81)-in a debate in the House of Commons, March 17, 1845, on agricultural distress. A Conservative is only a Tory
who is ashamed of himself. J. HOOKHAN FRERE (1769-1846) --when the terms Conservative and Liberal were beginning to take the place of Tory and Whig.
a crowning mercy. Oliver CromwELL (1599-1658) -in a despatch, dated Sep. 4, 1651, announcing the preceding day's victory Worcester : “The dimensions of this mercy are above my thoughis.
It is, for aught I know, a crowning mercy." Actors speak of things imagin
ary as if they were real, while you preachers too often speak of things real as
if they were imaginary. THOMAS BETTERTON (1635-1710) ---in reply to the Archbishop of Canterbury, who asked why actors were more successful than preachers in impressing their auditors. .. a delusion, a mockery, and a
snare. LORD DENMAN (1779-1854) – in giving judgment in the case of O'Connell and others v. the Queen, in the House of Lords, Sept. 4, 1844. (Clark and Finnelly's Reports of Cases in the House of Lords, vol. xi, p. 351.) “If it is possible that such a practice as that which has taken place in the present instance should be allowed to pass without a remedy (and no other remedy has been suggested), trial by jury itself, instead of being a security to persons
who are accused, will be a delusion, a mockery, and a snare. A dinner lubricates business.
LORD STOWELL (1745-1836). (Boswell's Johnson VIII, 67 note). A dying man can do nothing
easy. Last words of BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (1706-90)--to his daughter, who had advised him to change his position in bed, to breathe more easily. See J'avais cru plus difficile de mourir. .. a free breakfast table.
JOHN BRIGHT (1811-89)—a phrase used in addressing the Edinburgh Chamber of Commerce, in 1868, in favour of the repeal of the duties on tea, sugar and coffee. A friend may be often found and
lost ; but an old friend can never be found, and nature has provided that he cannot
easily be lost. DR. SAMUEL JOHNSON (1709-84): See A man, sir, should keep &c. After I am dead, you will find
· Calais' written upon my
heart. QUEEN MARY I (1517-58)—Last words, alluding to England's loss of that town. Another version is : “When I die, 'Calais' will be found wiitten on my heart : ' "Were I to die at this moment,
want of frigates' would be found stamped on my heart !” : LORD NELSON (1758 1805), in his despatches to the Admiralty (1798). (Southey, Life of Nelson, ed. 1888,