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Fango che sale. (Dregs which

rise to the top.) Guiseppe COLOMBO, Minister of Finance, at a conference at Milan, Nov, 7, 1889, referring to the administrative elections. “La “popolazione bassa approfitta di

questa inerzia, e il fango sale, “sale e sale.” (The lower orders of the population take advantage of this indulgence, and the dregs rise, rise, and keep rising.) Cf. : Sopra il fango che sale or non mi resta

Che gittare il mio sdegno in vane carte E dal palco mortale un di la testa (Over the dregs that rise, there but remains

me to fling my scorn in empty words, and one day raise the scaffold's frame above them.) Carducci, Rime nuove, pt. 2, sonnet xxxiii, last lines. Fuori i barbari! (Away with the

barbarians !) Attributed to POPE JULIUS II, otherwise Giuliano della Rovare (1441-1513), who held the Apostolic See from 1503 to 1513; referring to the Spanish army and all foreigners. According to Guiccardini (Istoria d'Italia, bk. ii) the Pope was continually hoping that “ Italia rimanesse libera dai Barbari." (Italy should remain free from the barbarians.) Godiamoci il papato, poichè Dio

ce l'ha dato. (Let us enjoy the pa pal office, since God has

given it to us.) Pope LEO X (1475-1521) was in the habit of using this phrase to his brother Giuliano. Governo negazione di Dio. (The

negation of God erected into a

system of government.) PROVERBIAL PHRASE, said to be derived from the first of two letters to the Earl of Aberdeen on the state prosecutions of the Neapolitan Government (under date April 7, 1851) from the Rt. Hon. W. E. Gladstone (1809-98.) *I have

seen and heard the strong and

too true expression used, This is “the negation of God erected into

a system of Government." Il nostro è secolo di transizione

e, quel che è peggio, di transazione. (Our century is one of transition, and what is worse, of [compromising) trans

actions.) Saying of GIOVAN BATTISTA NICCOLINI (1765-1861), recorded by Vanucci in his Ricordi della vita e delle opere di G. B. Niccolini, vol. i, p. 382. In Italia il potere non ha arric

chito nessuno. (In Italy power has brought riches iv

none.) Written by G. B. GIORGINI, on a draft bill for a pension to Luigi Carlo Farini (1822-66) brought before the Chamber of Deputies, April 16, 1863. “. . in Italia le “ vicendepolitiche sono state per "molti una

causa di rovina : il “potere non ha arricchito nessuno.” (In Italy the vicissitudes of politics have been a cause of ruin to many ; power has enriched no one.) Atti Parlam. Legisl. VIII, Sessione 1861-3, Camera dei Deputati, p. 4622. Io non credo alla geografia. (I

do not believe in geography). Attributed to PRINCE ONORATO CAETANI DI TEAXO, better known as the Duke of Sermonela, during his presidency of the Società Geografica Italiana. In allusion to the Duke Michelangelo, who, when a troublesome man was pressing upon him in an indiscreet manner a very expensive geographical work, replied: “Mi dispiace proprio tanto, ma io non credo alla geografia.” (Indeed I am exceedingly sorry, but I have no faith in geography).

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La monarchia ci unisce, la

repubblica ci dividerebbe. (Monarchy unites us, the re

public would divide us). FRANCESCO Crispi (1819-1901), in the Italian Parliament, May 1, 1864. L' aritmetica non è un' opinione

(Arithmetic is not an opinion). Attributed to the Deputy BERNARDINO GRIMALDI, in a speech in parliament, Nov. 27, 1879. The phrase occurred in the course of a personal explanation, after resigning i he post of minister of finance. “La "seconda dichiarazione che tengo a "sare è questa, che per me tulle “le opinioni sono rispettabili, ma “ministro o deputato ritengo che “l'ariimetica non sia un'opinione.” (The second declaration that I wish to make is this, that all opinions are respectable, in my view, but, whether minister or depuiy, I maintain that arithmetic is not opinion.) Atli Parlam., Discussioni della Cam. dei l'ep., Sess. 1878-9, (vol. x, col. 8707). But it really originated with Filippo Mariotti in a speech at Serrasanquirico. (Cf. D. Gaspari Memorie storiche, 1883, p. 259). Lente dell 'avaro. (The miser's

[dish of] lenuils). GIOVANNI LANZA, in a speech to the Chamber of Deputies, Dec. 15, 1869. Quoted by Antonio Starrabba Di Rudini, (1839- Jin a speech at Milan, Nov. 9, 1891. Libera Chiesa in libero Stato.

(A free Church in a free State). CAMILLE BENSO, Conte di Cavour (1810-61)- his dying words. Massari, Il Conte di Carour, Ricordi biografici (2nd edit., 1875, p. 434). “Frate, frate, libera Chiesa in libero Stato." (Brother, brother, &c.).

He had often repeated the phrase, and notably in parliament, Mar. 27, 1861, on the occasion of a discussion on the whole question of Rome. Libero io nacqui, e vissi, e morrò

sciolto. (Free I was born,

have lived, and will die also). Words on a medal struck at Rome by QUEEN CHRISTINA, of Sweden (1626-89). L'Italia è fatta, ma chi farà ora

gl' Italiani ? (Italy is made, but who will now make the

Italians ?) MASSIMO D'AZEGLIO(1798-1866), at the first meeting of the Italian Parliament at Turin, in 1860. L'Italia farà da sè. (Italy will

make its own way). CARLO ALBERTO (1798-1849), in his proclamation to the people, Mar. 23, 1848. Nè elettori né eletti. (Neither

electors nor elected). Saving used on the occasion of the abstention of the Catholics from voting at the election of Giacomo Margotti, director of the United Cattolica of Turin, in 1860. He replied in his paper by using the phrase “Nè apostati nè ribelli” (Neither apostates nur rebels). Obbedisco. (I obey).

GUISEPPE GARIBALDI (1807-82), writing from Bezzecca, Aug. 9, 1866, replied to an order received from general La Marmora to retreat (upsetting his plans when on the point of success) as follows: “TIO « ricevuto dispaccio 1072.

Obbe“disco. Garibaldi." (I have received your despatch, no. 1072. I obey). Per Dio, l'Italia sarà ! (By God,

Italy shall be !).



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Victor EMMANUEL II (1820-78) (Italy and

Victor Emmanuel, is reported to have said these words, Rome or death). pointing with his sword to the

Se non è vero è ben trovato. (If Austrian camp, soon after the defeat

it isn't true, it is well disof Novara, March 23, 1849.

covered.) Piace a me e basta. (It pleases Attributed to the CARDINAI. me and that is enough).

D'ESTE (1479-1520), referring to AGOSTINO DEPRETIS (1831-88),

Ariosto's Orlando Furioso.

Cf.: in parliament, when replying to the

Se non è vero è molto ben trovato. (If honourable Bosdari, to defend his

it isn't true, it is marvellously well dis

covered.)—Bruno, Gli Eroici Furori, pt. own measures.

ii, dialogue 3. Più santi che uomini da bene. Cf. “Fatti pure in là, non mi toc(More holy than good men

car con essa; se non è vero, egli è themselves).

"stato un beltrovato.” (Goon ahead;

don't trouble me with that matter ; FLORENTINE SAYING-applied to

if it is not true, it was right well dishypocrites who affect outward holi

covered.) Cf. A. F. Doni, Marmi ness of life, but are in their hearts worse than other men. Dati,

(1863 ed., p. 76.) (The work was Lepidezze (Firenze, 1829, p. 41).

first pub. 1552, but probably the

phrase was then already proverbial.) Cf. "Malus ubi honum se simulat, tune est Se son piene le carceri, son vuote pessimus. Publilius Syrus, Sententia, 284: le sepolture. If the prisons (: An ill man is always 11 ; but he is worsti

are full, the graves are empty:) of all when he pretends to be a saint" Bacon.)

CARDINAL LUIGI LAMBRUSRe galantuomo. (King Honest- CHINI, Secretary of State under man).

Gregory XVI (1765-1846), to some

one who one day said to him that Surname given to Victor EM

the prisons were not capable of acMANUEL II (1820-78) by the people commodating any more political (La vita e il regno di Vittorio

prisoners. Emanuele, vol. 1, p. 160.)

Tu sei piu rondo che l'O di Rispondo che non rispondo. (I

Giotto. (Thou art rounder reply that I do not reply.)

than Giotto's O.) Giov. FILIPPO GALVAGNO, PROVERBIAL SAYING, alluding to Minister of Agriculture (afterwards

a circle drawn with a pencil by G. Minister of the Interior), in Parlia

di Bondone Giotto (1276-1336) as a ment.

specimen of his work to be subRoma o morte. (Rome or death.) mitted to pope Benedict XI about BATTLE-CRY used in the un

1304. Another account says that fortunate expedition of Aspro.

the circle was drawn for Pope Bonimonte ; also, some years later, in

face VIII, his predecessor. Cf. the equally unfortunate one' of Carlyle's essay on Mirabeau. Mentana. The order of the day Videre Napoli et Mori. (See drawn up by Guiseppe Civinini, Naples and Mori). Garibaldi's secretary, on Aug. !, Mori is a little village near Naples. 1862, and read by the general, Said to be the origin

of the expres. began as follows : “ Italia e Vit- sion. “See Naples and die.” (a jeu torio Emanuele, Roma o Morte” de mots).

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Abiit, excessit, evasit, erupit.

(He is gone, he has fied," he
has escaped, he has burst

through us).
Cicero (106-43 B.c.) at the be-
ginning of his second oration against
Catiline, referring to Catiline's flight.
(Cicero, In Catilinam II, i, 1).
Acta est fabula. (The play is

over). DEMONAX(2nd cent. A.D.), Greek philosopher and contemporary of Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius, who lived 100 years and allowed himself to die of hunger.- Last words (in their Latin form): but see λήγει μεν αγών των καλλίστων. The phrase “Acta est fabula" was used in ancient times to inform the people that they might go home, the spectacle being ended. Augustus, (63 B.C.-14 A.D.) on his death-bed, asked his friends around him whether they thought he had played his part in life well, and quoted the following two lines from a Greek poet : Ει δε πάν έχει καλώς, το παιγνίω Δότε κρότον, και πάντες υμείς μετά

χαράς κτυπήσατε (In loud applause to the actor's praise If all be righi, with joy your voices raise). -Suetonius, Twelve Caesars, 99. See Tirez le rideau &c.

. . ad Kalendas Graecas. (. , at

the Greek Calends). AUGUSTUS (63 B.C. -14 A.D.)-a common expression of his in connection with debts owing to liim, which he expected would never be paid, seeing that there were no calends in the Greek months. (Suetonius, Twelve Caesars : Augustus, 87.) Cf.

“Ad Graecas, bone rex, fient mandata Kalendas.” (Your commands, noble king, shall be obeyed at the Greek Kalends),

QUEEN ELIZABETH (1533-1603) sage sent to Philip II of Spain, through his envoys. Ad usum Delphini. (For the use

of the Dauphin). Motto applied to the editions of Latin authors executed by order of Louis XIV (1638-1715) for his son, the Dauphin. Alea jacta est.-See Jacta alea

esto. Amicus Plato, sed magis amica

veritas. (Plato is dear to me,

but dearer still is truth). ARISTOTIE (384-322 B.C.)---referring to Plato (428-347 B.C.), from whose opinions he sometiires differed. (Ammonius, Life of Aristotle : the Greek original is not preserved). The Saving of Aristotle is a paraphrase of Socrates' words to Simmias and Cebes (Plato, Dialogues: Phaedo, xci).

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