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riotous because he refused. (Plut. arch, Lives: Demosthenes, xiv).

Υπόκρισις υπόκρισις υπόκρισις.

(Delivery ! delivery ! delivery !) ANDRONICUS (C. 284-6. 204 B.C.) --to Demosthenes, who asked him what were the three chief essentials of rhetoric. The passage in Plut. arch runs : "Οθεν ερομένου αυτόν τί πρώτον εν ρητορική, είπεν, Υπόκρισις" και το δεύτερον, 'Υπόκρισις και τι τρίτον, Υπόκρισις. (Accordingly when he [Demosthenes] asked him [Andronicus] what was the first thing in rhetoric, he said Delivery: and the second, Delivery; and the third, Delivery)- Lives of the Ten Orators: Demosthenes, 345. Cf. Boswell's Life of Johnson (1824 ed. vol. ii, p. 195], 1773.

τους χρηστους μη δείσθαι βοηθείας

(. . good men do not need any

intercessor). PHOCION (C. 400 317 B.C.) --when reproached by his friends for having interceded in court for some worthless man who was being tried. (Plutarch, Lites : Phocion, x). Τούτο μέν αναγκαιόν έστιν, ώ

θεμιστόκλεις, καλών δε και στρατηγικών αληθώς η περί τας χείρας έγκράτεια. (That, Theimistocles, is very true ; but it is also the part of an honourable

general to keep his hands clean). ARISTIDES (d. 469 B.C.)--to Themistocles, the latter saying that he thought it the most valuable quality for a general to be able to divine beforehand what the enemy would do. (Plutarch, Lives : Aristides, 24). Τούτο μεν, φίλοι, το ρέον αίμα και

ουκ ίχώρ, οιός πέρ τε ρέει
μακάρεσσι θεοίσιν.
friends, that flows from my
wound is blood, and not 'Ichor
that flows through the veins of

the gods'). ALEXANDER THE GREAT (356. 323 B.C.) --when wounded by an arrow (Plutarch, Lives : Alexander, xxviii). Τούτω νίκα.

(By this conquer). — See In hoc signo vinces. 'Υμείς εμοί, ώ άνδρες Αθηναίοι,

συμβούλω μεν κάν μή θέλητε, χρήσεσθε συκοφάντη δε ουδε αν θέλήτε. (Men of Athens, I shall always give you my advice, whether you wish it or not; but I will not accuse men

falsely even if you wish it.) DEMOSTHENES (c. 382-322 B.C.) - when called upon to impeach someone, the Athenians becoming

(This, my

Φιλήκοον είναι, μάλλον η φιλόλαλον.

(Be fond of listening, rather

than fond of chattering). CLEOBULUS (A. c. 560 B.C.) (Diogenes Laertius Lives: Cleobulus, 892). Cf. :

be check'd for silence, But never tax'd for speech.

Shakspere. All's Well that Ends Well, act I, Sc. 1, 11. 76-7 (Count of Rousillon). Cf. : Xρή σιγαν ή κρείσσονα σιγής λέγειν.

(Keep silence or let thy words

be worth more than silence). PYTHAGORAS-(Stobaeus, Flori. legium XXXII., 7). "Η σιγήν καίριον ή λόγον ωφέλιμον

έχε. (Keep timely silence, or

say something profitable). PYTHAGORAS-(Id., Ibid., xxxiv, 8). Φίλους μή ταχύ κτω·ούς δ' αν κτήση,

μη αποδοκίμαζε. (Do not make friends quickly, but do not cast them off when made).

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SOLON (B.C. 638-558)–(Diogenes
Laertius, Lives : Solon, $ 60).
Φίλων παρόντων και απόντων

μεμνήσθαι. (Bear in mind
your friends, whether present

or absent).
Thales (B.C. 636-546)–(Dio-
genes Laertius, Lives: Thales 8 37).
Φοβερώτερόν έστιν ελάφων στρατόπε-

δον ηγουμένου λέοντος ή λεόντων
ελάφου. (An army of stags
led by a lion is more to be
feared than an army of lions

led by a stag).
CHABRIAS (d. 358 B.c.)–(Plut-
arch, Apophthegmata : Chabrias, 3).

Also attributed by Stobaeus (Florilegium, LIV, 61) to Philip OF MACEDON (383-336 B.C.)

χαλεπόν ελεειν άμα και φρονείν.
(. . it is hard to have pity and

be wise).
AGESILAUS (438-361 B.C.)—when
leaving a sick friend behind in
spite of his entreaties, the camp
being suddenly broken up (Plut.
arch, Lives : Agesilaus, xiii).
Χαλεπόν έσθλόν έμμεναι. (It is

difficult to be good).
PITTACUS (B.C. 652-569)—
Diogenes Laertius, Lives : Pittacus,
$ 76).
Χαλεπόν μέν έστιν, ώ πολίται, προς

γαστέρα λέγειν ώτα ούκ έχουσαν.
(It is a difficull task, fellow-
citizens, to make the stomach
hear reason, seeing that it has

no ears).
CATO MAJOR (234-149 B.C).—
beginning of a discourse to the
Roman people, dissuading them from
an unreasonable clamour for lar.
gesses and distributions of

corn, (Plutarch, Lives: Cato Major, 8).

Cf. : The belly hath no ears.- English

Ventre affamé n'a point d'oreilles.-
French Proverb.
.. χρω δεξάμενος ήν ο θεός δίδωσιν

(. . take the gift the gods

provide you). THEOCRITUS, the prophet (c. 290-c. 210 B.C.)—to Pelopidas, alluding to a filly escaped from some horses at pasture, and which was used as a sacrifice (Plutarch, Lives : Pelopidas, 22). See Oở TOL απόβλητεστί θεών έρικυδέα δώρα. Αθηναίοι, άρα γε πιστεύσετε αν

ηλίκους υπομένω κινδύνους ένεκα της παρ' υμίν ευδοξίας και (Do you believe, Athenians, how great are the dangers I face to

win a good name at Athens?) ALEXANDER THE GREAT (356323 B.C.)-after crossing the Hydaspes, the passage of which was disputed by Porus. (Plutarch, Lives : Alexander, lx).

Carlyle (in his essay on Voltaire), alluding to Voltaire, says,

“At all “ hours of his history, he might “have said with Alexander: 'O

Athenians, what toil do I undergo

to please you !' and the last “pleasure his Athenians demand of “him is, that he would die for them.” (Criticaland Miscellaneous Essays 1888 ed., vol. 2, p. 155). "Ω γύναι, 'Αθηναίοι μεν άρχουσι

των Ελλήνων, εγώ δε Αθηναίων, έμου δε συ, σου

δε ο υιός, ώστε φειδέσθω της εξουσίας, δι' ήν, ανόητος ών πλείστον Ελλήνων δύναται. (Woman, the Athenians

govern the Greeks, I govern the Athenians, you govern me, and your son governs you : so let him not abuse his power, which, simple as he is, enables him to do more than all the Greeks put together).

THEMISTOCLES (c. 533-6. 465 B.C.)-to his wife, in reference to his son, who used to take advantage of his mother's weakness. (Plutarch, Lives: Cato Major,8). A saying of Cato Major's, (234-149 B.C.) when discoursing of the power of women was πάντες άνθρωποι των γυναικών άρχουσιν, ημείς δε πάντων ανθρώπων, ημών δε αι γυναίκες (all men rule their wives ; we rule all men ; and we are ruled by our wives)-ibid., 8. Cf. :

Les Français gouvernent le monde, et les femmes gouvernent les Français. (The French govern the world, and govern the French).

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"Ω Ηράκλεις, ως πολλούς όρω

στρατηγούς, ολίγους δε στρατι. ώτας. (By Hercules, how many generals I see--and how few soldiers !)

Κρίτων, το 'Ασκληπιό οφείλομεν

å lektpvóva. (Crito, I owe a cock to sculapius : will you

remember to pay the debt ?) SOCRATES (468-399 B.C.) -- Last words (Plato, Dialogues : Phiedo, 118 A). "Ω Λιγάριε, εν οίω καιρό νοσείς.

What an unseasonable time you have found for your illness,

Ligarius). BRUTUS (86-42 B.C.)—to Caius Ligarius, when the conspiracy was being formed against

Caesar. Ligarius replied : 'Αλλ' εί τι,

ω Βρούτε, σεαυτού φρονείς άξιον, υγιαίνω. (les; but if you, Brutus, contemplate anything worthy of yourself, I am well.) (Plutarch, Lires :

Marcus Brutus, xi). "I am not sick, if Brutus have in hand any exploit worthy the name of honour."Shakspere, Julius Caesar act ii, sc. 2 Ligarius. "Ω μακάριε Ξενόκρατης, θυε ταις

Xáploi. (Happy Xenocrates,

sacrifice to the Graces !) PLATO (B.C. 428-347)—constantly said to Xenocrates, who was always very solemn and grave (Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Xenocrates, S 7; also Plutarch, Lives : Marius, ii). Cf. Sacrifice to the Graces (Lord Chesterfield, Letters : 9th March 1748).

“Nay, then, we must sacrifice to the Muses ourselves," said Elizabeth-Sir W. Scott, Kenilworth, ch. xvii.

PHOCION (c. 400-317 BC.) alluding to those who pestered him with advice as to what he should do, Mikion having landed at Rhamnus with a large force of Macedonians and mercenaries. (Plutarch, Lives : Phocion, XXV). Cf.: Who can direct when all pretend to know ?Goldsmith, The Traveller, 1. 64.

"Ω καλής ημέρας. (Oh happy day !)

ANTIGONUS (d. 239 B.C. )-words shouted after a victory, when he vomited a quantity of blood, fell sick of a fever, and died. (Plutarch, Lives : Cleomenes, xxx).

Ω Kάτων, φθονώ σοι του θανάτου και

γάρ εμοί συ της σαυτού σωτηρίας èqdóvnoas. (Cato, I grudge thee thy death, for thou hast

grudged me thy safety). JULIUS CAESAR (100-44 B.C.) referring to Cato (95-46 B.C.) Plutarch, Lives : Cato, xxii).

Ω μήτερ, τήμερον η αρχιερέα τον υιόν

Ř puyáða oyel. (Mother, you shall 10-day see your son either

Pontifex Maximus or an exile). JULIUS CAESAR (100-44 B.C.)-on the day of his election. (Plutarch, Lives: Caesar, vii). See Aut Caesar, aut nihil.

Ω ξένε, ουκ εν δέοντι χρη τα δέοντι.

(You speak, my good sir, of what is much to the purpose

elsewhere). King LEONIDAS (A. c. 492-480 B.C.)-rebuking one who was discoursing about a matter which was itself opportune though the occasion and place were inopportune (Plutarch, Lives: Lycurgus, xx). "Ω παι, ζήτει σεαυτώ βασιλείαν ίσην,

Μακεδονία γάρ σε ου χωρεί. (My son, seek out a kingdom worthy of thyself, for Mace

donia will not hold thee). PHILIP OF MACEDON (382-336 B.C.)—10 Alexander the Great, after the latter had successfully ridden the horse Bucephalus. (Plutarch, Lives : Philip, vi). "Ω παίδες, πάντα προλήψετα ιο πατήρ

έμοι δε ουδέν άπoλείψει μεθ' υμών έργον αποδείξασθαι μέγα και λαμπρόν. (My father will forestallus, boys, in everything: he will leave no great and glorious exploit for to

achieve with you). ALEXANDER THE GREAT (356323 B.C.)-as a lad, whenever he heard of his father's victories. (Plutarch, Lites: Alexander v). "Ω Περίκλεις, και οι του λύχνου

χρείαν έχοντες έλαιον επιχέoυσιν. (Pericles, even those who have occasion for a lamp supply it

with oil). ANAXAGORAS (499-427 B.C.)when Pericles besought him to live. Anaxagoras was in want and had determined to starve himself to death. (Plutarch, Lives: Pericles, xvi). Ω Σόλων, τους βασιλεύσι δεί ως

ήκιστα ή ώς ήδιστα ομιλείν.
Μα Δίαλλ' ως ήκιστα ή ως
άριστα. (Solon, one ought to
say either very little to kings

or else say what they wish most to hear. : . Nay, rather, one should say either very little or

what it is best for them to hear.) Æsop (A. 570 B.C.)—to Solon, when vexed at Creesus' ungracious reception of the latter ; with Solon's reply. (Plutarch, Lives : Solon, xxviii). Ω τύχη, μικρόν τί μοι κακόν αντί των

τοσούτων και τηλικούτων αγαθών ποίησον. (O! fortune, for so many and such great benefits,

send me some small evil !) PHILIP OF MACEDON (382-336 B.C. )---on receiving news that a son had been born to hiin, a great victory gained by his general, Parmenion, and that he had been crowned at the Olympian games. (Plutarch, Apophthegmata : Philip, 3). See πότε άρα παυσόμεθα νικώντες ; Emilius (c. 229-160 B.C.) --addressing the people after burying his second child, relerred to the tickleness of Fortune in similar terms, knowing that she never bestows any great kindness unalloyed and without exacting retribution for it."

ωδίνειν όρος, είτα μύν αποτεκείν (... the mountain was in labour, and lo! it brought

forth a mouse). AGESILAU'S (438-360 B.C.) (Plutarch, Lites : Agesilaus, xxxvi). Cf. “Quid dignum tanto feret hic pro

missor hiatu ? Parturiunt montes, nascetur ridicu

lus mus.” (What's coming, pray, that thus he

winds his horn ? The mountain labours, and a mouse

is born.--Conington). --HORACE. De Arte Poetica, 138. “ The mountain has brought forth a mouse.”—English saying.



Ah! che se gli è un Dio, ben

tosto lo paghèra ; ma veramente se non e'è Dio, è galant' huomo. (If there is a God, he will be well punished; but, really, if there is no God,

he is a clever inan.) Attributed to POPE URBAN VIII (1568-1644), referring to Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642). See Si le cardinal est en paradis &c. Anch' io sono pittore! (I, too,

am a painter.) Attributed to CORREGGIO (14941534), standing before Raphael's picture of St. Cecilia at Bologna, but its authenticity is doubtful. Another version is “Son pittore anch'io." (I am a painter also.) P. Luigi Pungileoni, Memorie istor. iche di Antonio Allegri detto il Correggio (Parma, 1817, vol. I, p. 60.) Ancora imparo! (I am still

learning :) INSCRIPTION accompanying a favourite device of Michael ANGELO (1474-1563) of an old man in a go-cart, with an hourglass upon it.

Chiesa libera in libero Stato.

See Libera Chiesa in libero

Stato. Ci siamo e ci resteremo. (Here

we are, and here we will

remain.) VICTOR EMMANUEL II (182078), when receiving a deputation at the Quirinal Palace after entering Rome (June 2, 1871), is said to have uttered the following words : “ A Roma ci siamo e ci resteremo (We are at Rome, and there we will remain.) See J'y suis, j'y reste. Economie sino all'osso. (Eco

nomies right down to the bone, i.e., thorough retrench

ment.) QUINTINO SELLA, in a speech to the Chamber of Deputies, Dec. 15, 1869. Eppur si muove! (Nevertheless

it moves !) Attributed to GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642), after his recantation of his Dialogue on Sun-spots and the sun's rotation, before the Inquisition in 1632 ; but authenticity doubtsul (see J. J. Fahie, Galileo: his life and work, 1903.)

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