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̔Ο ἀπροσδόκητος [θάνατος] (That [death] which is unexpected).
JULIUS CESAR (100-44 B.C.)— the conversation turning in his presence, on what was the best kind of death. (Plutarch, Lives: Caesar, Ixiii).
Ο εἰδὼς λόγον καὶ καιρὸν οἶδεν. (He who knows how to speak knows also when).
ARCHIDAMIDAS (d. 328 B.C.)— remark when Hecatæus, the sophist, having been invited to the public table, was blamed for having said nothing during the whole of the supper-time. (Plutarch, Lives: Lycurgus, xx).
Οἱ λόγοι σου, ὦ ξένε, πόλεως δέονται. (This language, my friend, requires a state to back it).
LYSANDER (d. 395 B.C.)-to a Megarian who used considerable freedom of speech towards him. [Megara was always treated by the Greeks as a negligible quantity] (Plutarch, Lives: Lysander, xxii).
Ο ταύτης κρατῶν βέλτιστα περὶ γῆς ὅρων διαλέγεται. (He that is master of this, is in possession of the best argument as to frontier lines).
LYSANDER (d. 395 B.C.)-drawing his sword at the same time, referring to a dispute between the Argives and the Lacedæmonians about their frontier (Plutarch, Lives: Lysander, xxii). See Ultima ratio regem.
Οἱ μὲν ἄνδρες γεγόνασί μοι γυναίκες αἱ δὲ γυναῖκες ἄνδρες. (My men have become women, and my women men).
XERXES (d. 465 B.C.)-after the battle of Salamis, referring to the bravery of Artemisia (Herodotus, Histories, viii, 88).
Οπου γὰρ ἂν τῆς Ἰταλίας ἐγὼ κρούσω τῷ ποδὶ τὴν γῆν, ἀναδύσονται καὶ πεζικαὶ καὶ ἱππικαὶ δυνάμεις. (For in whatever part of Italy I stamp the earth with my foot, there will spring up forces, both footsoldiers and horsemen).
POMPEY (c. 106-48 B.C.)-tothose who said that there were not sufficent troops to repulse Cæsar, (Plutarch, Lives: Pompey, lvii; Apophthegmata: Pompey, xi).
Οπου γὰρ ἡ λεοντῆ μὴ ἐφικνεῖται, προσραπτέον ἐκεῖ τὴν ἀλωπεκῆν. (Where the lion's skin will not reach, we must sew the fox's skin on to it).
LYSANDER (d. 395 B.C.)-those who said that Hercules' posterity ought not to make use of deceit in war, (Plutarch, Lives: Lysander, vii ; Apophthegmata Laconica: Lysander, 3). Cf. Coudre la peau du renard à celle du lion.-French saying.
If the lion's skin cannot, the fox's shall. Eng. Prov.
Si leonina pellis non satis est, assuenda vulpina,-Latin Prov.
Also Lytton, Richelieu, act i, sc. 2. Οὐ γὰρ δὴ χώρην γε οὐδεμίαν κατόψεται ὁ ἥλιος ὅμουρον ἐοῦσαν τῇ ἡμετέρῃ. (Never shall the sun shine on any country whose frontiersmarch with ours).
XERXES (d. 465 B.C.)-in a speech to the Persian nobles. (Herodotus, Histories, vii, 8).
Οὐ δή πού τι κακὸν λέγων ἐμαυτὸν λέληθα ; (Can I have said something bad without knowing it ?)
PHOCION (c. 400-317 B. C.)-when making a remark in a speech which was vociferously applauded, turning to some of his friends. (Plutarch, Lives: Phocion, viii). See Il m'arrive un grand malheur &c.
Οὐ δοκεῖ ὑμῖν ἄξιον εἶναι λύπης εἰ τηλικοῦτος μὲν ὢν ̓Αλέξανδρος ἐθνῶν τοσούτων ἐβασίλευεν έμοι δὲ λαμπρὸν οὐδὲν οὔπω πέπρακται ; (Do you not think it is a matter for sorrow that, whilst Alexander was king of so many nations at so early an age, I have not yet done anything that is glorious?)
JULIUS CESAR (100-44 B.C.)— when reading the history of Alexander. He burst into tears, and made the above reply on being asked the reason. (Plutarch Lives: Caesar, xi)
Οὐ δύναται γὰρ ̓Αντίπατρος ἅμα μοι καὶ φίλῳ καὶ κόλακι χρῆσθαι, (Ι cannot be Antipater's friend and toady at the same time).
PHOCION (C. 400-317 B.C.)—when Antipater asked him to perform some disgraceful service for him. (Plutarch, Lives: Phocion, xxx). Cf. "I can't be your friend and your flatterer too."-English Saying.
Οὐ κλέπτω τὴν νίκην. (I do not
steal my victories).
ALEXANDER THE GREAT (356323 B.C.)-when his officers tried to persuade him to fall upon the Persians by night. (Plutarch, Lives: Alexander, xxxi).
Οὐ μόνον δ ̓ ἦν ἄρα τὸ φίλων πεῖραν λαβεῖν οὐ σμικρὸν κακὸν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸ φρονίμων στρατηγών. (It
is no less an evil for a man to have to make trial of his friends, than it is for a state to have occasion to put her generals to the test).
EURIPIDES (481-406 B.C.) — quoted by Plutarch, Lives: Fabius Maximus, xvii.
Οὐ παύσεσθε ἡμῖν ὑπεζωσμένοις ξίφη νόμους ἀναγιγνώσκοντες ; (Won't you stop citing laws to us, who are girded with swords?)
POMPEY (c. 106-48 B.C.)-when the Mamertini protested that the introduction of Roman administration was illegal. (Plutarch, Lives: Pompey, x).
Οὔτε τὰ πολλά γ ἔπη φρονίμην ἀπεφήνατο δόξαν. ('Tis not a multitude of words that shows a prudent judgment).
THALES (B.C. 636 546)—(Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Thales, § 35). Οὔ τοι ἀπόβλητ ̓ ἐστὶ θεῶν ἐρικυδέα δώρα. (The glorious gifts of the gods are not to be cast away). DIOGENES (B.C. 412-323)-being twitted with having received mantle of Antipater. (Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Diogenes, § 66). Cf.: Take the good the gods provide thee.-Dryden, Alexander's Feast, l. 107. χρῶ δεξάμενος ἣν ὁ θεὸς
Οὐ τοιαῦτά μοι ὁ λασανοφόρος σύνοιδεν. (The carrier of my nightstool has not so good an opinion of me).
ANTIGONUS (380-301 B.C.) King of Sparta-when Hermodotus in a poem referred to him as a child of the Sun.' (Plutarch, De Iside et Osire 24: Apophthegmata Antigoni, 7). See Il n'y a point de héros &c.
Οὐ τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους ἐρωτῶν πόσοι εἰσὶν, ἀλλὰ ποῦ εἰσὶν οἱ πολέμιοι. (The Spartans do not ask how many the enemy are, but where they are).
KING AGIS (d. 399 B.C.)-(Plutarch, Apophthegmata Agidos, 1). CLEOMENES (d. 220 B.C.) quoted, or rather parodied, this saying when he said to his countrymen μárη Λακεδαιμόνιοι πυνθάνονται περὶ τῶν πολεμίων, οὐ πόσοι εἰσὶν, ἀλλὰ ποῦ εἰσίν (It is useless for the Spartans to ask not how many their enemies but where they are), alluding to the flight of the Achaeans near Pallantium. (Plutarch, Lives: Cleomenes, iv). Cf. :
Tant de victoires avaient donné aux Suédois une si grande confiance, qu'ils ne s'informaient jamais du nombre de leurs ennemis, mais seulement du lieu où ils étaient. (So many victories had given such great confidence to the Swedes, that they never asked the number of their enemies, but only asked where they were.)-Voltaire.
Οὐδεὶς γὰρ δι' ἐμὲ τῶν ὄντων Αθηναίων
μέλαν ἱμάτιον περιεβάλετο. (For no Athenian ever wore mourning through my means).
PERICLES (494-429 B.C.)-on his death-bed, overhearing his friends enumerating his many claims to fame, and reminding them that they did not mention his greatest and most glorious claim (Plutarch, Lives: Pericles, 38).
Οὐδὲν ἀνδρείας χρῄζομεν ἐὰν πάντες ὦμεν δίκαιοι. (We should have no need of courage, if justice were universal).
AGESILAUS (438-360 B. C.)-being asked which was the better, justice or valour (Plutarch, Apophthegmata: Agesilai, 3).
Οὐδὲν ἄρα δυνατὸν γενέσθαι ἄκοντος Deo. (It is impossible, it seems, to do anything against the will of heaven!)
HANNIBAL (247-182 B.C.)-on hearing that the bones of Marcellus, which he had sent in a silver urn to his son, had been scattered on the ground in a struggle between their escort and some Numidians. (Plutarch, Lives: Marcellus, xxx). Οὐδὲν αὕτη ὑμᾶς λελύπηκεν ἡ ὀφρὺς,
ὁ δὲ τούτων γέλως πολλὰ κλαῦσαι τὴν πόλιν πεποίηκεν. (Yet his frown has never done you any harm; but the laughter of these men has brought great sorrow upon the State).
CHARES (fl. c. 367-338 B.C.)-the Athenians laughing when he mentioned Phocion's gloomy brow in a speech. (Plutarch, Lives: Phocion, v) Οὐδὲν ἦν ἄρα θαυμαστὸν ἄρχειν γυναῖκας ἀνθρώπων φευγόντων τὴν ἐλευθερίαν. (No wonder women bear rule in a city where men fear to be free).
CLEOMENES (d. 220 B.C.)referring to Alexandria, whose inhabitants were afraid to join in his conspiracy. (Plutarch, Lives: Cleomenes, xxxvii).
Οὐδὲν· οὐδὲ γινώσκω τὸν ἄνθρωπον,
ἀλλ ̓ ἐνοχλοῦμαι πανταχοῦ τὸν Δίκαιον ἀκούων. (None at all, neither know I the man; but I am tired of everywhere hearing him called 'the Just ').
A GREEK PEASANT-to Aristides (d. 469 B.C.), not knowing who he was, on being asked whether Aristides had ever done him any harm.
Οὐκ ̓Αθηναῖος οὐδ ̓ Ἕλλην ἀλλὰ KóσμLOS. (I am a citizen, not of Athens or of Greece, but of the world).
(Plutarch, De Exilio, v.) Cf. the saying of Marcus Aurelius (Quod
sibi ipsi scripsit, vi, 44):
Πόλις καὶ πατρὶς, ὡς μὲν ̓Αντωνίνῳ, μοι ή 'Ρώμη, ὡς δὲ ἀνθρώπῳ, ὁ κόσμος. (My city and country, as Antoninus, is Rome, but as a man, the world).
Οὐκ αἰσχύνῃ καλῶς οὕτω ψάλλων ; (Are you not ashamed to play so well?)
PHILIP OF MACEDON (382336 B.C.)-to his son, who played brilliantly on the harp at an entertainment. (Plutarch, Lives: Pericles, i.) Antisthenes (f. 366 B.C.) said, on hearing that Ismenias was an excellent flute-player :
̓Αλλ' ἄνθρωπος μοχθηρός· οὐ γὰρ ἂν οὕτω σπουδαῖος ἦν αὐλητής. (But he must be a poor sort of a man, for otherwise he would not have been such an excellent piper). ibid., i.
. . οὐκ ἂν ἡ Ἑλλὰς δύο Λυσάνδρους ἤνεγκε. (Greece could not have borne two Lysanders). ETEOKLES, the Lacedæmonian -alluding to Lysander's cruelty (Plutarch, Lives: Lysander, xix). Archestratus is said to have made a similar remark about Alcibiades. Cf. Alexander's reply to Darius:
μήτε τὴν γῆν ἡλίους δύο μήτε τὴν ̓Ασίαν δύο βασιλεῖς ὑπομένειν. (.. the earth could not brook two suns, nor Asia two masters). (Plutarch, Apophthegmata, Alexandri, II).
Οὐκ ἔλεγον ὅτι Ξανθίππη βροντώσα καὶ ὕδωρ ποιήσει; (Did I not say that when Xanthippe thundered, she would afterwards also rain?)
SOCRATES (B.C. 468-399)-when his wife lectured him and then threw water in his face. (Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Socrates, § 36).
Οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν πολέμῳ δὶς ἁμαρτεῖν. (In war it is not permitted to make a second mistake).
LAMACHUS (d. 414 B.C.)—to one of his captains whom he was reprimanding for some fault he had committed, the captain having said that he would not do it again. (Plutarch, Apophthegmata: Lamachi, 1).
Οὐκ εὐτρεπὴς οὗτος; οὐ νεουργής; ἀλλ ̓ οὐκ ἂν εἰδείη τις ὑμῶν, καθ' ὅ τι θλίβεται μέρος οὐμὸς πούς (Is it not a fine [shoe]? Is it not a new one? and yet none of you can say where my foot is pinched).
A ROMAN put away his wife, and, on his friends blaming him, saying: "Is she not chaste? is she not beautiful? is she not fruitful? he held out his shoe, making the above remarks. (Plutarch, Lives: Amilius Paulus, v). Cf. "But I wot best wher wryngith me my scho."-Chaucer, Marchandes Tale, 1. 399.
Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ Πλάτωνος ἄνθρωπος. (Here is Plato's 'man').
DIOGENES (B. C. 412-323)—on bringing into the school a cock, which he had previously plucked. Plato had defined man as 'a twolegged animal without feathers.' With flat nails' was afterwards added.
*Ανθρωπος ζῶον ἄπτερον, δίπουν, πλατυώνυχον. (Man is a wingless animal, with two feet and flat nails). -Plato, Definitions (ed. Stephens, P. 415, A; Cf. Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Diogenes, vi., 2, 6). Cf.: Homo est animal bipes rationale. (Man is a two-footed reasoning animal).-Boëthius, De Consolatione Philosophiae, v, Prosa, iv.
Πάντα λίθον κίνει. (Turn every stone).
DELPHIC ORACLE-advice given to Polycrates (d. 522 B.C.) as the best means of finding a treasure buried by Mardonius, Xerxes' general, on the field of Plataea (Corpus, Paræmiograph Græc., i, p. 146). It is the origin of the expression "To leave no stone unturned." Cf. :
Πάντα κινῆσαι πέτρον. (Το leave no stone unturned). — Euripides Heraclidae, 1. 1002; and
'Tis good for us to live in gravel-pits,* but not for gravel-pits to live in us; a man in this case should leave no stone unturned. -Swift, Journal to Stella, letter 34. Πανταχόθεν ὁμοία ἐστὶν ἡ εἰς ᾅδου
κατάβασις. (The descent to Hades is alike from every side).
ANAXAGORAS (B.C. 499-427)--to one who was grieved that he should die in a foreign country. (Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Anaxagoras, § 11). Πάνυ μὲν οὖν· λέγω μὴ μνησικακεῖν
τοῖς ̓Αθηναίοις. (Certainly, my message is that he bear no malice against the Athenians). PHOCION (c. 400-317 B.C.)— when asked shortly before his death, if he had any message for his son, Phocus. (Plutarch, Lives: Phocion, xxxvi).
Παραπλήσια ἔργα εἶναι νομέως ἀγαθοῦ καὶ βασιλέως ἀγαθοῦ. (The functions of a good shepherd and those of a good king are much the same).
CYRUS (d. 529 B.C.)-(Xenophon, Cyropaedia, viii, 2, 14).
Πάταξον μὲν, ἄκουσον δέ. (Strike,
but hear me).
* Patients were sent to Kensington gravel. pits for the sake of air.
THEMISTOCLES (514-449 B.C.)— to Eurybiades, the Spartan, who had raised his staff as if to strike him. (Plutarch, Lives: Themistocles, xi). Cf.:
"Tenez, monsieur, battez-moi plutôt, et me laissez rire tout mon soûl; cela me fera plus de bien." (Look, sir, beat me rather, and let me laugh my fill; that will do me more good).-Molière, Le Bourgeois gentilhomme, act 3, sc. 2.
See Frappe, mais va-t-en.
Παῦσαί με, ὦ ἄνθρωπε, κλαίων· καὶ γὰρ οὕτω παρανόμως καὶ ἀδίκως ἀπολλύμενος κρείττων εἰμὶ τῶν ȧvaiрouvтwv. (Stay your tears, friend; for in my unlawful and wrongful death I am better than those that are murdering me).
KING AGIS (d. 399 B.C.)--on being led to execution, to one of the prison officers who was weeping. (Plutarch, Lives: Agis, xx).
Πλεῖν ἀνάγκη, ζῆν οὐκ ἀνάγκη.
is necessary to sail: it is not necessary to live).
POMPEY (c. 106-48 B.C.)-when about to sail for Sicily, &c., to collect grain, the ships' masters being unwilling to start. (Plutarch, Lives: Pompey, xi). See Je n'en vois pas la nécessité.
πλείονα δ ̓ ἂν ἔτι τούτων εἰρήκειν, εἰ πλείων παρῆν οἶνος ἡμῖν. (.. and we should have said more [evil] of you, if we had had more wine).
A YOUTH-to PYRRHUS (d. 272 B.C.). The youth, with others, had been speaking ill of Pyrrhus over their wine (Plutarch, Lives: Pyrrhus, viii).
Ποιητὰ δὲ νόμιμα εἶναι. (Whatever is, is right).
DEMOCRITUS (B. C. 460-357)— Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Democritus, § 45). Cf. :