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pected that a little alteration or improvement will be made to enable them to be handled more easily or render them more effective.
(2) With regard to invented sayings, or those for which no authority has been found (e.g., L'état, c'est moi), Sainte-Beuve puts their case very strongly when he writes (Causeries du Lundi, vol. xiii. pp. 107-8), referring to a mot of Villars which seems never to have been uttered by him. . "le mot est si bien dans sa nature que, s'il ne l'a pas dit, il a dû le dire" In these cases the Italian saying, "se non è vero è ben trovato, is often very appropriate; and, on the other hand, as Boileau writes (L'Art poctique, iii, 48), "Le vrai peut quelquefois n'être pas vraisemblable." So that there is something to be said in favour of these (from one point of view useful) inventions after all.
(3) There is often a very good reason for a saying being fathered on the wrong person. Molière's words (Amphytrion, act ii, sc. 2) seem very appropriate here:
"Tous les discours sont des sottises,
Partant d'un homme sans éclat:
Ce seroient paroles exquises
Si c'étoit un grand qui parlât."
Pope, too, expresses a similar idea in his Essay on Criticism, pt. ii, ll. 220-1.
"But let a Lord once own the happy lines,
How the wit brightens! how the style refines!" But, without either adopting M. Fournier's apparently pessimistic attitude towards historic sayings in general, or going to the other extreme and accepting them all without question, the compiler's object in the following pages has been to bring together, in their original language, what he hopes may be considered a fairly representative collection of historic sayings, real or apocryphal, improved or altered, rightly or wrongly attributed, as the case may be; answering the questions by whom said, and under what circumstances; giving authorities as far as he has been able to ascertain them, varying versions, and, by means of frequent cross-references, enabling interesting comparisons to be made between them. The task of selection has been by no means an easy one, for a similarsized volume might have been easily filled with sayings in any one of the six languages chosen.
Bon mots, as such, have not been included, for as Voltaire
Tacitus (Annals, I, 74) has it: "Quia vera erant, dicta etiam
writes (Essai sur les mœurs et l'esprit des nations, ch. cxlv). "La plupart des bons mots ne sont que des redites." This criticism, as will be seen in these pages, applies also, although perhaps in a less degree, to many historical sayings.
A number of "dying words have been included, not so much because of any particular intrinsic merit they may possess, but rather on account of the interest they acquire from their having been uttered (or said to have been uttered) by famous persons. With regard to these M. Fournier writes (p. 377, idem) "Défiez-vous des mots prêtés aux mourants. La mort n'est point bevarde: un soupir, un regard noyé dans les ombres suprêmes, un geste de la main se portant vers le cœur, quelques paroles confuses, mais surtout sans déclamation, voilà seulement ce qu'elle permet à ceux qu'elle a frappés." Still, if correctly reported, they are likely to proceed from the heart of the speakers.
Gaunt: “O, but they say, the tongues of dying men
Where words are scarce, they are seldom spent in vain ;
On the whole, it is perhaps better, while keeping an open mind on the point of their accuracy, to value historical sayingslike history for what they teach. Rousseau (Emile, 1838 ed., vol. i, p. 307) writes: "Les anciens historiens sont remplis de vues dont on pourroit faire usage quand même les faits qui les présentent seroient faux Les hommes sensés doivent regarder l'histoire comme un tissu de fables, dont la morale est très appropriée au cœur humain.” Here are the sayings
fables or otherwise, partly true or wholly false-it is for my readers to draw their own moral from any of them, or draw none at all as they please. For my part, to conclude these desultory remarks-as they began-- with a quotation,
I cannot tell how the truth may be;
I say the tale as 'twas said to me.
Sir W. Scott, Lay of the Last Minstrel, ca. ii, st. 23. It only remains for me to express my indebtedness and thanks for the valuable assistance rendered me by Mr. Swan Sonnenschein, Mr. W. A. Peplow, and Mr. F. Thorold. Dickson, of the Inner Temple, Barrister-at-Law.
Errors there must be in such a compilation, and particulars of any such that may be noticed will be gratefully received if forwarded through the publishers.
ENGLISH AND AMERICAN SAYINGS
A bishop ought to die on his legs.
JOHN WOOLTON, Bishop of Exeter (1535-94),-Last words. See Decet imperatorem, &c; Un roi de France peut mourir, &c. It is related of Siward, Earl of Northumberland (d. 1055) that, when near his end, he put on his armour, saying that "it became not a man to die like a beast ;" and died standing. (Percy Anecdotes, vol ii, p. 102).
A bishop should die preaching.
BISHOP JEWELL (1522-71)—in reply to his friends, who were endeavouring to persuade him to desist from pulpit services owing to his state of health (Percy Anecdotes, vol. iii, p. 285).
a born gentleman.
DR SAMUEL JOHNSON (170984): "Adventitious accomplishments may be possessed by all ranks, but one may easily distinguish the born gentleman.”
Above all things-Liberty.
JOHN SELDEN (1584-1654)— Motto placed by him upon his books.
a burglar of others' intellects. BENJAMIN DISRAELI [Earl of Beaconsfield] (1804-81)-in a speech in the House of Commons, May 15, 1846, referring to Sir Robert Peel. Preceded by "His life has been one great Appropriation Clause"; and followed by "Search the index of Beatson from the days of the Conqueror to the termination of the last reign, there is no statesman who has committed political petty larceny on so great a scale."
.. a city of cities, an aggregation of humanity, that probably has never been equalled in any period of the history of the world, ancient or modern.
BENJAMIN DISRAELI [Earl of Beaconsfield] (1804-81)—in a speech
in the House of Commons, May 1, 1873, referring to London.
A Conservative Government is an organized hypocrisy. BENJAMIN DISRAELI, [Earl of Beaconsfield] (1804-81)—in a debate in the House of Commons, March 17, 1845, on agricultural distress. A Conservative is only a Tory
who is ashamed of himself. J. HOOKHAM FRERE (1769-1846) -when the terms Conservative and Liberal were beginning to take the place of Tory and Whig.
a crowning mercy.
OLIVER CROMWELI. (1599-1658) -in a despatch, dated Sep. 4, 1651, announcing the preceding day's victory at Worcester: "The dimensions of this mercy are above my thoughts. It is, for aught I know, a crowning mercy." Actors speak of things imaginary as if they were real, while you preachers often speak of things real as if they were imaginary. THOMAS BETTERTON (1635-1710) -in reply to the Archbishop of Canterbury, who asked why actors were more successful than preachers in impressing their auditors.
a delusion, a mockery, and a
LORD DENMAN (1779-1854)— in giving judgment in the case of O'Connell and others v. the Queen, in the House of Lords, Sept. 4, 1844. (Clark and Finnelly's Reports of Cases in the House of Lords, vol. xi, p. 351.) "If it is possible that such a practice as that which has taken place in the present instance should be allowed to pass without a remedy (and no other remedy has been suggested), trial by jury itself, instead of being a security to persons
who are accused, will be a delusion, a mockery, and a snare.”
A dinner lubricates business.
LORD STOWELL (1745-1836). (Boswell's Johnson VIII, 67 note). A dying man can do nothing
Last words of BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (1706-90)-to his daughter, who had advised him to change his position in bed, to breathe more easily. See J'avais cru plus difficile de mourir.
.. a free breakfast table.
JOHN BRIGHT (1811-89)-a phrase used in addressing the Edinburgh Chamber of Commerce, in 1868, in favour of the repeal of the duties on tea, sugar and coffee. A friend may be often found and lost; but an old friend can never be found, and nature has provided that he cannot easily be lost.
DR. SAMUEL JOHNSON (1709-84): See A man, sir, should keep &c. After I am dead, you will find 'Calais' written upon my heart.
QUEEN MARY I (1517-58)-Last words, alluding to England's loss of that town. Another version is: "When I die, Calais' will be found written on my heart:" cf. "Were I to die at this moment,
want of frigates' would be found stamped on my heart!" : LORD NELSON (1758 1805), in his despatches to the Admiralty (1798). (Southey, Life of Nelson, ed. 1888, p. 186)
a 'gentleman of the press.' BENJAMIN DISRAELI [Earl of Beaconsfield] (1804-81) thus styled himself in a speech in the House of Commons on England's relations with France, Feb. 18, 1853. "And