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established by scientific pedagogy relating to the unfolding of the fundamental interests of children.

The contents of the Readers have been selected from the best literary sources. Both ancient and modern classics have been largely drawn upon, especial attention having been given, not only to the ethical content, but also to the literary and engaging qualities of the material selected. The Series includes, also, a number of original stories and much re-written matter. Everything contained in the Readers has been carefully adapted to the requirements of the respective grades the selections having been subjected to a practical test in the schools of New York. Method, material, grading, form, vocabulary, interest, etc., have been made the subject of actual experiment. The aim has been to produce a series of books that will accomplish all the ends of literary Readers, and at the same time will embody a graded system of moral instruction.

No especial pedagogical method is required of the teacher in using these books. The same method of questioning that obtains in the use of other Readers may be adopted in the use of the ethical Readers. If, in the teacher's judgment,

the pupil fails to apprehend the real moral content of the story or poem, the teacher can easily lead up to it by tactful questioning, but she should be especially careful to avoid the direct method. It is eminently desirable that the pupil should do his own moralizing, hence the teacher should not try to exhort or preach.

The Series, as thus constructed, is the only one of its kind. Books for moral instruction used by the French, the Japanese, the English, as well as in our own country, employ either the direct method, or a combination of the direct and indirect methods, and the English and American books contain much religious material. This Series must, therefore, be regarded as the first and only contribution of its character made to moral education. It is earnestly hoped that the Readers may satisfy the almost universal demand for systematic graded instruction in morals in the schools.

This particular book, designed for pupils approximately of the seventh grade, embodies the fundamental features of the Series. It deals with the virtues and vices peculiar to children of this age. The material has been prepared with the

utmost care. Very naturally in a Reader for pupils of this grade the emphasis is laid on the virtues of the broader social and political life and on those of the economic or vocational life. It is, of course, vitally important that the moral of each lesson should be apprehended by every pupil in the class. To this end, in each instance, after the story has been read by the class, it might be told by one or two of its members, and the moral brought out by judicious questioning. Too much emphasis, however, cannot be laid on the fact that direct exhortation should be avoided. The teacher should question the pupil, just as she would on any other story, to determine to her own satisfaction whether he has fully grasped its meaning. By this method, the pupil will be led to do his own moralizing, which is much more effective than exhortation by the teacher.

We are permitted by the kindness of the publishing houses named below to use the following selections: "The Master-Player," from Lyrics of Lowly Life, by Paul Laurence Dunbar (Dodd, Mead & Company); "The Boyhood of Abraham Lincoln," from The True Story of Abraham Lin

coln, by E. S. Brooks (Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Company); "One of the Busiest Women of New York," from True Stories of Heroic Lives, by Carrie D. Macomber (Funk & Wagnalls Company); "Roland," from Heroes Every Child Should Know, adapted by H. W. Mabie (Doubleday, Page & Company); "Marco Bozzaris," from the Complete Works of Fitz-Greene Halleck; "Thanatopsis," from the Complete Works of William Cullen Bryant (D. Appleton & Company); "The Goblin and the Huckster," from Hans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales (Ginn & Company); "The Risks of a Fireman's Life," from Fighting a Fire, by Charles T. Hill (Century Company); "A Hero of the Fishing Fleet," from The Harvest of the Sea, by Wilfred T. Grenfell (Fleming H. Revell Company); "Palissy the Potter," from The Red Book of Heroes, by Mrs. Lang (Longmans, Green & Company); "A Song," from Afterwhiles, by James Whitcomb Riley (The Bobbs-Merrill Company).

We are also indebted to Mr. Rudyard Kipling for permission to use his poem, "The Ballad of the Clampherdown."

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