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whereas, conformably to the Royal solicitude and benevolence which I entertain towards all classes of my subjects, it is against my Royal pleasure that any of them should be exposed to trouble; the Protestants now forming a separate community, it is my Royal will that measures should be taken for ensuring the proper administration of their affairs, and for enabling them to live in peace and security. It is therefore, my Imperial will and command, that a respectable, and trustworthy member of that sect, being a bona fide subject of my empire by descent, should be chosen by themselves and appointed with the title of Agent of the Protestants, and be attached to the Department of the Minister of Police; that the register of the community kept in his charge should be deposited in that department; that the births and deaths should be there entered by their agent, and that their passports, marriage-licences, and other matters appertaining to the community to be transacted at the Porte or elsewhere, should be procured and transacted by means of memorials sealed with the seal appertaining to the office of the aforesaid agent: and the present Royal edict has been issued from my imperial Dívan to the above effect.

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You, therefore, the aforesaid Mushir, on fearning that such are my Royal commands, will attend to the strict execution of the regulations in question as afore-stated. As the issue of passports and the assessment of the taxes come under a special regulation, you will not suffer anything to be done in contravention thereof; you will not permit any fees or "Haratch" to be taken from them for the issue of their marriage-licences or for their registration. You will afford them every assistance and facility in the transaction of all their affairs, and in all matters concerning their burial places and places of worship, like unto the other communities which are subjects of my empire. You will not permit any interference whatsoever on the part of other communities in their religious rites or in their temporal concerns, but will enable them to perform the religious observances of their sect in security. You will be careful that they do not suffer any molestation whatever either in this or in any other respect, and that proper means be taken to enable them to live in peace and security, with free access, when necessary by their agent to my Sublime Porte.

You will be mindful that the present Imperial edict be registered at the proper office and confirmed in favour of the aforesaid subjects; and you will continue to pay strict attention to the injunctions contained therein.

Be it thus known unto you, and give full credence to my Imperial cypher.

(Inclosure 2.)—Memorial on behalf of Armenian Protestants. Constantinople, March 23, 1850.

THE Protestant community in Turkey, regarded from the point of view of the Turkish institutions as now in use, has no chartered rights or act of incorporation in its hands, but exists merely by the sufferance of the present Ministry.

On a change of Ministry, Protestants are liable to be treated as a people unknown to the laws or to the Government. In fact, the predecessor of the present excellent Minister of Foreign Affairs refused to recognise the agent of the Protestants, though he had been appointed in consequence of a Vizerial order requiring the Ihtissab to admit the Protestants to a separate registry.

This Vizierial order had been addressed to the Ihtissab and 4 or 5 provincial Governors, and was the first, step on the part of the Turkish Government, after Sir Stratford Canning had so effectually interposed to prevent persecution, towards giving anything like a legal existence to the Protestant community.

Owing, however, to the frequent changes of Governors, the influence of this Vizerial order does not extend beyond the term of office of the Governor who first received it, any further than custom has created prerogative. For the Vizerial order was not a charter entrusted to the hands of the Protestants, by which they could at any time show that they also were tolerated like the other communities. To this day they have never had an official or signed copy of that order. For a time it answered a great and useful purpose yet still their position is without any solid foundation.

As there is every indication of steady enlargement of the Protestant community, the Porte will one day be compelled by the force of events to confirm their rights, though it may be only after bitter and startling persecution, with a renewal of appeals to Protestant Powers. But the present moment seems a most favourable one to forestall such danger of persecution.

The materials for such a charter do not require to be drawn from the firmans bestowed upon patriarchs or provincial bishops, which confer temporal power and extraordinary privileges. The Protestants cheerfully take the laws of the country as they are, seek for no peculiar privileges, but simply ask for an act confirming them in their rights equally with other Christian denominations.

If the Turkish Government is not prepared, on account of any plans it may cherish of abrogating the whole system of politicoreligious communities with their peculiar privileges, to give to the Council of the Protestants of Constantinople a charter confirmatory of their rights, an act or decree of the Sultan's cypher might be made, acknowledging the equal rights of the Protestants with other Christian denominations, and their right, in concert with the local.

authorities to build houses of prayer (churches), to open cemetries, and to have councils for the administration of their internal affairs, with such agents as they shall choose and the authorities accept to be their organ with the Government. An official copy of such a document would answer all the purposes of a berat or charter.

Within 18 months the Protestants have in various forms petitioned for a charter, but their requests have been unheeded; within a week they have sent in another petition.

(Inclosure 3.)—Memorial on behalf of Armenian Protestants.

Constantinople, August 2, 1850.

Ir is respectfully represented by the Raya Protestant community, that they are actually suffering much, and exposed to suffer more from want of efficient protection by the local authorities.

When wrong or injury is done to any one of their number, though the Minister of Foreign Affairs decrees its examination by the Police Pasha, the course pursued at the police is to blame both parties, and leave the Protestants without any satisfaction for the injury done. No Armenian defendant for the last 4 years, has suffered fines or imprisonments, for false accusations, false imprisonments, invading houses of Protestants, or beating them. The 2 cases to which appeal is made in proof of this, are 2 suits now before the police, of which the essential facts are these:

In the district Imrakhor of Psamatia of Constantinople, there is a house held by an Armenian Protestant, and inhabited by Yanco, a Greek Protestant. During the last 3 weeks especially (not to mention previous attacks on this house) it has been mobbed by crowds of from 100 to 1,000 Greeks; all the windows broken in, the joiner's work destroyed, and the house made a wreck. A son was robbed of his clothes and money; Yanco, his wife, and children, after repeatedly suffering violence, were obliged to flee to his mother's house. Pursued thither, his mother's arm was broken in the tumult. Compelled to leave this refuge, he was charitably received with his family for 2 nights by the Imam of Balji Jami, and he is still a refugee from his own dwelling.

When the cause came before the Police Pasha (by decree of Aali Pasha), he ordered 4 or 5 of the offenders to the House of Correction (Iplik Khané), but on the way thither they were set free. The Pasha, when inquired of by the Protestants, said he had only given the order to "appease the quarrel" (defi belai), and not to punish. And when the Protestants demanded some kind of satisfaction, at least, for pecuniary damages, he ordered them to the legal Mahommedan tribunals (Mehkemé). This was equivalent to his abandoning the cause, and giving the enemies of the Protestants a carte blanche

to do what they please in future, for it is impossible successfully to prosecute any particular individual of a mob, in courts of such peculiar rules about witnesses. The Pasha, if he had manifested any degree of impartiality, might have held the head of the quarter responsible, or ordered the quarter to repair the damages, or held at least some inquisition for the guilty.

The second case is one where a highly respectable Raya Protestant Armenian family demands, in accordance with Mahomedan customs and law, satisfaction to their honour for a gross insult. A low Armenian entered their house, situated at Leblebigi Kioshk Psamatia of Constantinople, at midnight, through the window, and lay down in a bed of the room where the family were asleep. He and his companions formed the design, either before or after the event to have the house thereby declared of ill-fame, and thus they would succeed in expelling the only Protestant family in the quarter from their midst.

The Armenian Patriarch, to secure the aggressor from the police, had him confined at first in the Armenian House of Correction, and had the presumption to beg of the Kiatib Effendi of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, that the punishment he was giving might be regarded as sufficient. When finally, after delay, the trial came on at the police, instead simply of the accused, appeared priests, and cavasses, and beadles of the Patriarchate, and headmen of distant quarters. During the intervals of the trial, the criminal charged with such an infamous outrage is suffered to go at large, and remains much more under the influence of the insinuations of his own countrymen, than of the terrors of justice. And he and all his fellows are emboldened by the disregard shown by the police to the wrong done to this family to plan other enormities of the same kind.

Any one acquainted with Constantinople sees that if either of these affairs had been of any other people than the small and almost unacknowledged body of Protestants, many individuals engaged in the mobs would, ere this, have been in the bagnio, and the midnight invader of the room of a sleeping family would have met with condign punishment.

Now all that the Protestants here, at the very seat of Government, are asking of the authorities is, in the first case, not for imprisonments, but merely that an imdemnification be made in money for losses accruing from the mobbing of the house and driving out its occupants-the facts being of public notoriety; and in the second case, that the honour of a family be established by a suitable public confession or punishment to the midnight invader. Otherwise their enemies may succeed in driving them also from their home.

[1850-51.]

SIR,

No. 82.-Viscount Palmerston to Sir Stratford Canning. Foreign Office, December 11, 1850. I HAVE received your Excellency's despatch of the 18th ultimo, inclosing a copy of the draft of an Imperial firman which has been sent in for the Sultan's approval, formally recognizing the Sultan's Protestant subjects as a separate community, and conferring certain privileges upon them.

I have to state to your Excellency that this important result of your highly meritorious exertions in regard to this matter is extremely satisfactory and gratifying to Her Majesty's Government. I am, &c.

H.E. Sir Stratford Canning.

PALMERSTON.

No. 83.-Sir Stratford Canning to Visc'. Palmerston.-(Rec. Dec. 19.) (Extract.) Therapia, November 26, 1850. THE Sultan has given his sanction to the firman which I have obtained in favour of the Protestants of this empire. Aali Pasha has sent me officially a legalized copy of it, as your Lordship will perceive on perusing the report inclosed herewith from Mr. Stephen Pisani. The original instrument is to be registered in the Public Record Office, and consigned to the care of the Protestant agent.

Religious liberty and exemption from civil vexations on account of religion are now secured to all those whom purer views of truth or the corruption and bigotry of other churches may attract or force into its bosom; and the example of its members may, with God's blessing, operate favourably on the relaxed morals of the Greek and Armerian clergy.

The draft of the firman submitted to the Sultan having undergone some verbal alterations, I inclose herewith an amended translation which is in strict conformity with the original, as now promulgated. Viscount Palmerston, G.C.B. STRATFORD CANNING.

(Extract.)

(Inclosure 1.)-M. S. Pisani to Sir Stratford Canning. Pera, November 25, 1850. I HAVE the honour to transmit inclosed herewith a legalized copy of the firman in favour of the Raya Protestants, as sanctioned by the Sultan, which Aali Pasha requested me to forward officially to your Excellency,

H.E. Sir Stratford Canning.

S. PISANI.

(Inclosure 2.)-Firman in favour of Protestant Rayas-(Communicated October 24, 1850.) (Translation.)

To my Vizier Mehemed Pasha, Minister of Police at my capital. WHEREAS the Christian subjects of my empire who are Protes

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