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Ar no period in the history of our country was it less necessary to offer an apology for introducing a national work on Education than at the present time. So keen is the competitive spirit of the age, that the advantage of knowledge in the struggle for advancement is apparent to all. The mighty power of steam applied to railways and vessels has developed national and international communication to a degree not dreamt of at the commencement of the century. Telegraphy presents to our view the daily contemporaneous history of the world; and the Press, relieved from those shackles which impeded its action and fettered its influence, has become a powerful medium for the communication of thought between the leading minds of the age. In the political condition of our own country a change has been wrought, the consequences of which the boldest prophet avows his inability to predict, but which all parties agree will be fraught with good or evil, according to the degree in which the new recipients of power may be possessed of the knowledge to use that power aright. The necessity of Education, therefore, which was fiercely combated when this work first saw the light, is now universally admitted, and the mode and the system alone remain to be discussed. So patent is this, that the illustrious chief of the Conservative Party has been pleased to accept the dedication of this work to himself. Gratifying as is this complimentary recognition of the services which the original edition of the POPULAR EDUCATOR has rendered in the promotion of National Education, we feel that the basis of our present claim upon the co-operation of all the friends of that great movement consists in this-that our system has been tested, its efficiency has been proved, whilst a sale of 500,000 copies has testified, on the part of those for whom it was designed, their appreciation of the work and their estimate of its value.
But some twenty years have elapsed since the POPULAR EDUCATOR first issued from the press, and during that period considerable advances have been made in many of the departments of knowledge. To perfect the work in accordance with all the discoveries up to the present day, we have found it necessary to introduce many new subjects, and to re-model many of our old lessons, and we shall spare no expense in making these changes as complete as possible. To amuse, to instruct, to elevate, will be our constant endeavour. To render the workman more perfect in his vocation, the soldier and sailor better fitted for the higher positions of his profession, the naturalist more conversant with the beauties of Nature, the politician further acquainted with the im
portant events in the history of his country, and to place at the command of the student for the Civil Service or University Examinations all the branches of education necessary for his advancement, no effort will be wanting. Our ambition is to place in every English Home an Educational Encyclopædia, invaluable as a manual of study and a work of reference, which, whilst simple, progressive, and interesting in its style, shall be powerful for the improvement and the advancement of its students.
In the three great departments of knowledge which this Work will embrace-History, Science, and Languages-the end of such instruction, viz., its practical application to the affairs of life, will be kept steadily in view. Science will be taught not merely as abstract truth or an interesting intellectual exercise, but as embodying in all its branches those principles, a knowledge of which will explain the various phenomena of the world, and enable us to avail ourselves more intelligently, and therefore more successfully, of all the varied material with which Nature has supplied us.
Instruction in Languages-whether living or deadwill be so conveyed as to enable the student not only to understand a given set of books in any particular tongue, but to make him master of the language itself by gradual and easy, but yet real and tangible stages.
The Historic Sketches, by means of which we shall teach History, will, we hope, render that study no longer a mere record of battles, an obituary of kings, a mighty chaos of incident; but will illustrate how each nation has discharged its functions in the world's history-how each epoch has played its part in the drama of a nation's life.
A reference to our list of contents will show that under various heads will be included every branch of study which can possibly be useful in the varied walks of life.
The great aim and object of this Work is to enable the people to educate themselves. We have only to ask them to realise the magnitude and grandeur of the work in which they will be engaged if they determine to do Obstacles will be overcome by united resolution. Every difficulty surmounted will be additional strength for further victories. A good education is the best legacy we can leave to our children. It is the best investment we can make for ourselves. The educated man in every walk of life carries with him his own capital-a capital unaffected by monetary crisis-an investment whose interest is not regulated by the success of speculation—a legacy which none can dispute, and of which none can deprive.
LESSONS IN FRENCH.—I.
IN commencing these Lessons in French, instead of beginning with a long chapter exclusively devoted to the pronunciation of words, and the variations which are caused in the sounds of vowels and consonants by changes in their relative position, we have thought it best to enter at once into the construction of the language, and endeavour, without unnecessary delay, in as plain a manner as possible, to make our readers familiar with its various idioms and peculiarities. The Section on French pronunciation will be divided into several portions, one of which will be given at the commencement of each lesson in French, until the subject is exhausted.
SECTION I.-FRENCH PRONUNCIATION.
I. THE FRENCH ALPHABET.
1. A tolerable pronunciation of any spoken language may be acquired by imitating the sounds of that language, as uttered by a living teacher. But the reading and writing of any language cannot thus be learnt. The pupil must bring into requisition something else besides his imitative powers, if he would thoroughly comprehend any language. The alphabet of the language to be learnt must be exhibited and examined, and then mastered.
2. An alphabet is a collection of different characters called letters, each of which represents its own peculiar sound. These letters differ from each other in name, form, size, and sound. Used as vehicles of thought, they must not only be familiar to the eye, but their use, both singly and combined, must be understood.
3. Two objects are to be before the student whilst perusing these preliminary lessons on French pronunciation, namely :— First. The acquisition of the correct pronunciation of the various sounds of the letters of the French alphabet. Second-To learn how to combine and use these sounds, in order to read the French language easily, intelligibly, and profitably.
4. The first object will be accomplished by the aid of analogous English sounds; that is, every sound represented by a letter or combination of letters of the French alphabet, will be unfolded, analysed, and defined, as far as possible, by means of analogous sounds of a letter or combination of letters of the English alphabet.
5. The second object will be accomplished by learning a few brief and simple rules, illustrated and enforced by appropriate examples.
6. Diligent attention, patient labour, and a determination to succeed, will enable the learner to overcome every obstacle, and thus make him master of a language, not only exceedingly difficult for foreigners to acquire, but beautiful in itself, and co-existent with the triumphs of civilisation.
The first example-ouai, is composed of two compound vowels, viz.: ou and ai.
The second example-oueu, is also composed of two compound vowels, viz.: ou and eu.
In the last example-ouée, the final e is silent, and the three vowels are thus divided, viz.: ou and é.
13. THE VOWEL Y.-The vowel y is frequently found combined with other vowels, but in such combinations it is never used as a diphthong. Its use in combination is peculiar, and will be fully explained hereafter.
14. THE NASAL VOWEL SOUNDS.-There are certain sounds called nasal vowel sounds, produced by the combination of the vowels with the consonants m and n, namely:
La fille, the daughter, the girl. Le frère, the brother. La sœur, the sister.
7. The student's attention is next directed to the French 2. Before a word commencing with a vowel or an h mute, the alphabet. While the English alphabet contains twenty-six final e or a of the article le or la is cut off, and replaced by an letters, in the French alphabet there are only twenty-five. It apostrophe, leaving the article apparently the same for both has no letter which corresponds to the English w, though it is genders [§ 13 (7)], as :occasionally found in French books. It is used only in foreign words, and then pronounced like the English v.
8. The French alphabet is divided into vowels and consonants. 9. THE VOWELS.-The vowels are six in number, namely:
L'aïeul [1(e) aïeul], the grandfather.
3. There are in French only two genders, the masculine and the feminine [§ 4]. Every noun, whether denoting an animate or inanimate object, belongs to one of these two genders. MASC. L'homme, the man.
Le livre, the book.
L'arbre, the tree.
Le lien, the lion.
FEM. La femme, the roman.
La table, the talle.
La plume, the pen.
* References thus [§ 13 (2)] refer to Sections in Part II. of these Lessons, but by references in Roman numerals, thus, [Sect. I. 30] the learner is directed to Sections in Part I., the portion of our "Lessons in French" which we are now commencing.
5. The e of the pronoun je is elided, when that pronoun comes before a vowel or an h mute, and replaced by an apostrophe, as J'ai [J(e)ai], I have, as above [§ 146].
6. In interrogative sentences, when the third person singular of a verb ends with a vowel, and is immediately followed by a pronoun, the letter t, called euphonic [Sect. I. 30], must be placed between the verb and the pronoun, and joined by two hyphens, as:—
To be translated into English.
1. Qui a le pain? 2. Le boulanger a le pain. 3. A-t-il la farine 4. Oui, Monsieur, il a la farine. 5. Avons-nous la viande ? 6. Oui, Monsieur, vous avez la viande et le pain. 7. Le meunier a la farine. 8. Le boulanger a la farine et le blé. 9. Avons-nous le livre et la plume? 10. Oui, Mademoiselle, vous avez le livre et la plume. 11. Le boucher a la viande. 12. Le meunier a la viande et j'ai le café. 13. Avezvous l'eau et le sel? 14. Oui, Monsieur, nous avons l'eau, le sel, et l'avoine. 15. Avons-nous le thé ? 16. Non, Monsieur, la file a le thé, le vinaigre, et lo sel. 17. Ai-je le vin? 18. Non, Madame, vous avez seulement le vinaigre et la viande. 19. Avez-vous la table? 20. Oui, Madame, j'ai la table.
To be translated into French.
1. Have you the wheat? 2. Yes, Sir, I have the wheat. 3. Who has the meat? 4. The butcher has the meat and the salt. 5. Has he the oats? 6. No, Madam, the horse has the cats. 7. Have we the wheat? 8. You have the wheat and the four. 9. Who has the salt ? 10. I have the salt and the meat. 11. Have we the vinegar, the tea, and the coffee? 12. No, Sir, the brother has the vinegar. 13. Who has the horse? 14. The baker has the horse. 15. Have we the book and the pen? 16. No, Miss, the girl has the pen, and the miller has the book. 17. Have you the table, Sir? 18. No, Sir, I have only the book. 19. Who has the table? 20. We have the table, the pen, and the book.
SECTION III.-THE ARTICLE (Continued). 1. The article le, with the preposition de preceding, must be contracted into du, when it comes before a word in the masculine singular, commencing with a consonant or an h aspirated 1 13 (8) (9)], as :—
4. The name of the material of which an object is composed always follows the name of the object; the two words being connected by the preposition de [§ 76 (11)], as :
L'habit de drap,
Le tailleur a l'habit de drap du médecin.
Vous avez la lettre de la sœur du boulanger.
A-t-il le livre de la dame ?
The cloth coat,
The silk dress.
The gold watch,
The tailor has the physician's cloth coat.
You have the baker's sister's letter (the letter of the sister of the baker). Has he the lady's book?
m., silver, Couteau, m., knife.
money. Bas, m., stocking. Bois, m., wood. Chapeau, m., hat. Charpentier, m., car
Cordonnier, m., shoe
Coton, m., cotton.
Cuir, m., leather.
Dame, f., lady.
Drap, m., cloth. Foin, m., hay. Habit, m., coat. Laine, f., wool.
Montre, f., watch.
To be translated into English.
Porte-crayon, m., pencil-case. Robe, f., dress. Satin, m., satin. Sœur, f., sister. Soie, f., silk. Soulier, m., shoe. Table, f., table. Tailleur, m., tailor.
1. Avez-vous la montre d'or? 2. Oui, Madame, j'ai la montre d'or et le chapeau de soie. 3. Monsieur, avez-vous le livre du tailleur ? 4. Non, Monsieur, j'ai le livre du médecin. 5. Ont-ils le pain du boulanger? 6. Ils ont le pain du boulanger et la farine du meunier. 7. Avez-vous le porte-crayon d'argent ? 8. Oui, Monsieur, nous avons le porte-crayon d'argent. 9. Avons-nous l'avoine du cheval? 10. Vous avez
l'avoine et le foin du cheval. 11. Qui a l'habit de drap du charpentier? 12. Le cordonnier a le chapeau de soie du tail14. Avez-vous la table de bois ? 15. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai la table de bois du charpentier. 16. Ont-ils le couteau d'argent? 17. Ils ont le couteau d'argent. 18. Le frère du médecin a la montre d'argent. 19. La sœur du cordonnier a la robe de le soulier de satin. 22. Avons-nous le bas de laine? soie. 20. A-t-elle le soulier de cuir? 21. Non, Madame, elle a Monsieur, vous avez le bas de soie du tailleur. 23. Non, 24. Qui a le bas de coton ? 25. Le médecin a le bas de coton. le soulier de satin de la sœur du boulanger.
13. Le tailleur a le soulier de cuir du cordonnier.
To be translated into French.
26. La dame a
1. Have you the tailor's book? 2. No, Sir, I have the physician's watch. 3. Who has the gold watch? 4. The lady has the gold watch and the silver pencil-case. 5. Have you the tailor's shoe? 6. I have the tailor's cloth shoe. 7. Have we the wooden table? 8. Yes, Sir, you have the wooden table. 9. Have they the silver knife? 10. They have the silver knife. 11. The lady has the silver knife and the gold pencil-case. the satin dress. 12. Has she the satin dress? 13. The physician's sister has 14. Who has the wood? 15. The carpenter's brother has the wood. 16. Have you the woollen stockings? 17. No, Sir, I have the cotton stockings. 18. Who has the baker's bread? 19. We have the baker's bread and the miller's flour. 20. Have we the horse's hay? 21. You have the horse's oats. 22. Have we the tailor's silk hat? 23. Yes, Sir, you have the tailor's silk hat and the shoemaker's leather shoe. 24. Have you the cloth shoe of the physician's sister? 25. No, Madam, I have the lady's silk dress.
LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-I.
EARLY NOTIONS; THE GEOGRAPHY OF THE SCRIPTURES.
THE term Geography is derived from two Greek words, ym, the earth, and ypaon, a description (pronounced ghee and grá-phe), and simply means a description of the earth's surface; it is therefore rightly applied to that science which treats of the natural outline and extent, the political division and constitution, the eivil and social condition, and the industrial wealth and population of the various countries, kingdoms, and states which have appeared, or which now exist on the face of the globe. Ge phy includes also the description of the form of the ear
motions, its place in the solar system, the great circles supposed to be drawn on its surface, and its position in the heavens by which it is surrounded on all sides; the diversified nature of its surface, as seen in its mountains, valleys, plains, rivers, seas, and oceans, and in the constitution and phenomena of the atmosphere by which it is enveloped, as in a swaddling band; and the different races of animals, including man, and the various kinds of vegetable and mineral productions which are distributed over its surface.
It will be sufficient for our purpose, in this first lesson, to state generally that the form or shape of the earth is that of a globe or ball, and that the height of the highest mountains on its surface is so small in comparison with the size of the earth, and interfere so little with its rotundity, or roundness, that this height has about the same proportion to the diameter of the earth, which the thickness of common writing-paper has to the diameter of a twelve-inch terrestrial globe. The ancients had
possessing all those antiquated notions in science, particularly in geography and astronomy, which the uninstructed tribos of Asia, Australasia, and Polynesia possess at the present day. "The Hebrews," says an eminent writer, "obviously never attempted to form any scientific theory respecting the structure of the earth. The natural impression which represents it as a flat surface, with the heaven as a firmament or curtain spread over it, is found to be universally prevalent. Beneath was conceived to be a deep pit, the abode of darkness and the shadow of death. In one place we find the grand image of the earth being hung upon nothing; but elsewhere the pillars of the earth are repeatedly mentioned; and sometimes the pillars of heaven. In short, it is evident that every writer eaught the idea impressed on his senses and imagination by the view of these grand objects, without endeavouring to arrange them into any regular system." We have quoted this passage as a specimen of the loose style of writing and thinking regarding
no such knowledge of the earth as we now possess; and though some of the most intellectual of the philosophers of Greece, such as the famous Pythagoras, are supposed to have reached the notion of its globular form, it was buried under a cloud of errors and extravagances.
To the most extended view which the human eye can take of any part of the surface of the earth, even from the highest eminence found on that surface, it appears to be one vast and illimitable plain, diversified by hill and dale, land and water, mountain and valley. The heavens appear to be a luminous dome above the head of the observer, bespangled with stars at night, and they seem to rest on the surface of the earth at an immense and immeasurable distance. He feels as if he would be afraid to travel so far, either on land or sea, as to reach the limit which he supposes must ultimately be found to this surface, lest he fall over into an interminable abyss; and he supposes that the phenomena of the heavens are confined to the upper and visible concave which he beholds, while his imagination dooms all beneath his feet to death and everlasting oblivion. Such were the limited notions which prevailed at an early period in the history of the world; and it is one great proof of the antiquity and authenticity of the sacred Scriptures, that they describe men as they really were in ancient times, and as
the science of the sacred Scriptures. The style of these writings, in the places above referred to, is highly poetical; and who, we would ask, expects to find didactic theories in a poem ? The poet seizes the phenomena of nature as they appear to the eye, and enlarges, magnifies, or arranges them at pleasure; he is not tied to rules, nor confined to the language of the schools. To do so, would destroy his poetry, and reduce his imagination to an automaton. The book of Job, in which these grand expressions are found, is the oldest book in the world. It was written long before the time of Moses; and though found in the Hebrew language, it was evidently not written by a Hebrew. It is curious, however, that the writer of this book should have lighted upon such a striking fact, as that the earth hangs upon nothing! Had this been found in a Chinese or a Hindoo book, possessing such claims to antiquity as the Hebrew book, it would have been lauded to the skies as a proof of superior knowledge, and would have been held as an infallible proof that the Chinese or the Hindoos, ages ago, were actually acquainted with the facts of modern science.
The same writer looks to Phoenicia for the origin of geogra phical knowledge; and there can be no doubt that, being some of the earliest merchants and traders both by sea and land, the Phoenicians must have been among the first nations of the world
who acquired some knowledge of its surface, and of the countries The River meant the great river, the river Euphrates. it then contained. It is admitted that the tenth chapter of its banks stood the mighty capitals of Assyria and Babylon, Genesis contains a view of the known divisions of the earth at and there flourished the most renowned empires of antiquity. an early period, and that it agrees in some striking particulars Hero also was supposed to have been the seat of Paradise, or with the records of profane history! It is also acknowledged the garden of Eden. Thus saith the poet :that Ezekiel visited Tyre, as Herodotus did Babylon, with the "Seek not for Paradise, with curious eye, eye of an intelligent observer; and it is considered probable In Asiatic climes, where Tigris' wave, that he held intercourse with the best-informed men in that Mixed with Euphrates in tumultuous joy, great school of commerce and navigation. The geographical Doth the broad plains of Babylonia lave. boundaries to which he alludes are considered as placed at the 'Tis gone with all its charms, and, like a dream, Like Babylon itself, is swept away; farthest limits of their knowledge-viz., Tarshish, Ophir, the Isles, Bestow one tear upon the mournful theme, Sheba and Dedan, the River, Gog and Magog, and the North. But let it not thy gentle heart dismay.
Tarshish is deemed, with very great probability, to have been the name used in Scripture for Africa. It appears to have belonged originally to a great African city, called Carthage in later times, and well known from its rivalry to Rome; it was afterwards extended to the whole continent of which that city might be considered the metropolis; but especially to that division of it, now known by the name of Northern Africa, exclusive of Egypt and the countries adjacent to the Arabian Gulf. This division was called by the Romans Africa Propria, that is, Africa Proper, and included Carthage; and Jerome calls a voyage to Tarshish an "African voyage." This also solves a difficulty which has been found in the Scriptural accounts of two different voyages to Tarshish; the one up the Mediterranean Sea, from the Strait of Gibraltar, bringing iron, silver, lead, and tin, the produce of Spain and Britain (Ezek. xxvii. 12); and the other, up the Red Sea, or Arabian Gulf, from the Strait of Bab-el-mandeb, bringing gold and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks, the produce of Central Africa (1 Kings x. 22). Ophir, as being connected with Tarshish and Sheba in the voyages of Solomon's ships for gold and other produce, is rightly considered as a part of Africa, which indeed appears highly probable from the similarity of the name. The eastern coast is the quarter to which all the indications seem evidently to point. In the voyage to Tarshish by the Red Sea, the name of Ophir is also mentioned, and in one case the latter is substituted for the former (2 Chron. ix. 10). But we have seen that Tarshish is a name for one part of Africa; now, Ophir is a name for another part of the same continent. As gold is the produce of Ophir, we must look to that part where it is to be found. This, for the sake of consistency in the history of the voyage, can only be Sofala, where abundance of gold is said to exist, and whence it could easily be brought in ships through the Red Sea to Sheba in Arabia; from the Strait of Bab-el-mandeb it could either be carried overland through this country to Jerusalem, or it could be transported up the gulf to the place now called Suez, whence it could readily be brought into the palace of Solomon the king.
The Isles, the isles of the Gentiles, the isles of the sea, the isles of Chittim and of Elishah, all point out the islands which abound in the Mediterranean, which is called "the sea" and the great sea" in Scripture. These are acknowledged to be Sicily and the other islands belonging to Italy and Spain; the i-lands of Greece, a country almost wholly insular and peninsular; and the islands of Cyprus and Crete (Candia), with various other smaller islands scattered through the Archipelago, and lying on the west of Asia Minor.
Arabia Felix, or Arabia the Happy, is considered to be the country anciently called Sheba or Sabæa. Its trade was in gold and incense; and it was carried on by caravans which came from the coast, where they had been imported from Ophir. The "companies of Sheba" are mentioned in Job-a fact which shows the antiquity of its commerce; and the "multitude of its camels" are spoken of in Isaiah-another fact which shows its value and long continuance. The commerce of Dedan rivalled that of Sheba. It came up the Persian Gulf from the Strait of Ormuz. The imports were ivory and ebony, and "precious clothes" for chariots. These were the commodities of India, and they were carried across the desert of Arabia, or Arabia Deserta, into Petra, the capital of Arabia Petræa, or Arabia the Stony, which consisted chiefly of the ancient country of Idumea, or Edom. The inhabitants of Dedan were only the merchants who brought the produce of India to the capital of Edom, as a depot for the supply of the countries lying to the north and the west of it, and the travelling companies of Dedanim" might consist of native Hindoo or Asiatic traders, whose home was on the deep.
For know, wherever love and virtue guide,
And pleasures unalloyed each hour increase."
Along the countries situated between the Euphrates and the Tigris, and on both sides of these rivers, Ezekiel mentions a number of cities, as Haran, Canneh, Eden, Asshur, etc., from which great caravans proceeded to Tyre with cloths and other valuable commodities. These appear to have been brought overland across the countries of Asia, and probably by interior caravans from Hindostan and the borders of China, the native country of silk.
The North, and Gog and Magog, described by Ezekiel, have been considered as denoting the Scythian hordes of warriors who invaded the south, and carried away "silver and gold and a great spoil." But tho passages in which the North is mentioned are, with more reason, supposed to refer to the high table-lands in the interior and the north of Asia Minor, Phrygia, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Paphlagonia. The imports from theso regions were "vessels of brass and persons of men." These countries are famous for their produce in copper, iron, and steel to this day; and their trade in slaves for the supply of harems is equally notorious. Horses and mules are also mentioned as brought from the same quarter; and this trade also has been found a branch of the traffic carried on in the upland tracts of Paphlagonia. Thus we have given a succinct view of the ancient geography recognised in the Scriptures.
LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-I.
ABOUT to write a series of lessons in English, I think it desirable to let the readers of the POPULAR EDUCATOR know what they may expect. In general, then, I intend to exhibit the facts of the language and the productions of the language. The facts of the language, if systematically presented, will involve the laws of the language; and the productions of the language, historically treated, will comprise the literature of the language. The facts of the language and the productions of the language thus regarded, will obviously lead the careful student to a knowledge of the language. Nor without both the facts and the productions can any one possess an acquaintance with the language. A knowledge of any language implies a familiarity with its literature, and a familiarity with the facts or laws of its construction. You cannot have the one without the other, any more than you can know the principles of Grecian art, unless you have studied its masterpieces. Apart from the literature of a language, you cannot know its grammar; apart from the grammar of a language, you cannot know its literature. The literature of a language is the organic life, whose laws grammar has to learn and expound. The grammar of a language is merely a systematic exposition of the laws observed in the composition of its literature. Hence you see that an acquaintanco with the literature of a language should precede the study of its grammar. Indeed, the productions of a language are earlier than its grammar. Men pronounced sentences, delivered speeches, composed and sang poems, long before they had any idea of the rules of which grammar is made up. First was the thought; then came the utterance, and out of many utterances at last grew the science of grammar. Grammar has no other function than to learn and set forth the laws of a language, which have been already observed by some great writer or great writers. Long posterior to Homer was the criticism which in Greece gave birth to grammar.
The knowledge of the grammar of a language, then, does not involve a knowledge of the language itself. Still less are tho