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$10,000, for a survey of the Alleghany river, between Pittsburg, and Olean, for the purpose of improving its navigation, but it was negatived.

Mr. Stewart moved an amendment, appropriating $4,000, for repairs made on the Cum berland road, by Valentine Geesy, but it was negatived.

Mr. Duncan moved an appropriation of $20,000, to construct a harbour at Chicago, which was also negatived.

$30,000, were then added, on motion of Mr. Vinton, to the appropriation for continuing the Cumberland road, west of Zanesville, and the bill was passed without further opposition.

By this bill the following appropriations were made,

For carrying on the Delaware

breakwater,.

removing a sand bar at the mouth of the Black river, Ohio.

pier head at Cunningham

creek, Ohio,.

completing the removal of obstructions at the mouth of Ashtabula creek, Ohio, completing the improvements of the harbour of Presque Isle, Penn.,

$270,000

2,400

500

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3,400

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6,000

completing the pier at the

mouth of Buffalo har

bour, New-York,

31,700

improving the entrance of

Genesee river, N. Y.,

15,000

removing obstructions at the

mouth of Big Sodus bay,

N. Y.,

15,000

cidental to making examinations and surveys under the act, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-four, payment of balance due

25,000

completing the pier and mole

at Oswego, N. Y,

8,400

the completion of the break

water at the mouth of the Merimack river,

4,900

600

repairing Plymouth beach, the breakwater at Hyannis, Massachusetts,

improving the harbours of New Castle, Marcus Hook, Chester, and Port Penn, in the Delaware,

Joseph C. Brown, for

running the western

boundary of the state of
Missouri,

The bill making appropria

5,000 tions for light houses, and bea

up

cons, was not taken until the 2nd of March. It was then 4,000 amended in committee of the

140

whole, and reported to the house. Mr. Polk then attempted to defeat it, by a motion to lay it on the table. This motion was negatived, ayes 43, nays 71, and the bill passed the house, but,

Mr. Grundy objecting in the senate to its being read a second time on the same day, as contrary to rule, it was lost in the senate.

CHAPTER VIII.

ENGLAND.

Dissolution of Parliament.-Elections.-Meeting of Reformed Parliament. Re-election of Speaker.-Debate on Address.Condition of Ireland.-Bill for repressing Disturbances.Proclamation of Lord Lieutenant.--Suppression of Irish Volunteers.-Do. of National Trades Union.-Reform of Irish Church. Abolition of Slavery in Colonies.-East India Company.-Renewal of Charter.-China Trade Free.-Bank of England. Renewal of Charter.-Factory Children Bill.Parochial Saving Banks Bill.-Reduction of Taxes.-Tumult in Cold Bath Fields.

THE third of December, 1832, was the commencement of a new era in the history of Great Britain. On that day the last parliament, under the system of close burroughs, was dissolved, and writs were issued, returnable on the 29th of the succeeding month, for a new parliament, in which the commons of England should be more directly represented. A warm contest ensued between the respective parties, for the supremacy in the new house. The tory party, although defeated, was still strong, and determined not to retire from the field where they had so long held the ascendancy.

There were many strongholds in their possession, from which they had resolved not to be driven without a desperate struggle. On the other hand, the whigs deemed the reformation in the house of commons merely as the beginning of reform. The East India company, the corporate privileges in all parts of the empire, the Episcopal church, and the public expenditure, were prominent objects demanding the attention of a reforming administration.

Besides these parties which had so long represented the English nation, there was a new party. which called for a more

radical reform. Although this party supported the ministers in their reforming measures, they could not be depended upon as staunch supporters. Their radical views were inconsistent with the cautious policy of Lord Grey's administration, and it was not improbable that the end of the session would find them arrayed in hostility against those with whom they had co-operated.

The Irish members who advocated the repeal of the Union, were upon the same terms of dubious friendship, and the ministerial party did not really possess the overwhelming majo. rity over their opponents, that the returns indicated.

The elections terminated in the return of upwards of 400 in favour of the administration, 150 tories, and nearly 100 of radicals, Irish repealers, and independents.

No event of public importance took place before the meeting of parliament, on the 29th of January.

After parliament had been opened in due form, by the lord chancellor, and others acting as commissioners, the commons retired to elect a speaker. Mr. Hume immediately urged the propriety of electing a whig member to that office, and moved that Edward John Littleton should be placed in the chair. This motion was seconded by Mr. O'Connell; but lord Morpeth rose, and after highly eulogizing the ability and experience of Charles Manners Sutton, pro

posed that he should be re-elected. This was seconded by Sir Francis Burdett, and Mr. Littleton also urged that Mr. Hume should not press a division.

This, however, was called for ; when Mr. Sutton was elected, 241 to 31.

The house, after some discussion as to the retiring pension of the speaker, (which had been voted to Mr Sutton,) then adjourned, and on the 5th of February, the king's speech was delivered.*

In the discussion on the address, but little was said in the house of lords, and that chiefly in relation to the policy pursued towards Holland and Portugal, which was pointedly condemned by lord Aberdeen, and the duke of Wellington.

as

In the house of commons, the discussion was more animated, and Mr. O'Connell vehemently denounced the policy recommended towards Ireland, bloody and brutal. He was replied to by Mr. Stanley, in a most masterly manner, and the house rejected Mr. O'Connell's motion to go into committee on the address, ayes 40, nays 428. The address was finally agreed to.

The state of Ireland, which had been growing more gloomy daily, now imperiously demanded the attention of government.

The fury of the peasantry was so fearfully increased by the tithe agitation, that the clergy of the English church were compelled to flee from their homes by threats of

* This will be found page 364 Appendix.

assassination.

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