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to his brother JOSEPH, KING OF NAPLES (1768-1844) when advising him to erect fortresses, etc., at once. L'essai loyal. (The loyal trial).

L.-A. THIERS (1797-1877) in his speech of Jan. 17, 1851, said, re"Faisons ferring to the Republic, "donc cette expérience, faisons-la "loyalement, sans arrière-pensée." (Let us then try this experiment, try it loyally, unreservedly.) -Discours parlementaires, vol 9, p. 105. On Dec. 26, 1871, he said,



Croyez-moi, vous qui voulez faire "un essai de la République, et "vous avez raison, il faut le faire who loyal." (Believe me, you wish to make a trial of the Republic, and you are right, you must make it loyally). Ibid, vol 13, p. 627.

Les souliers de M. Dupin. (M.

Dupin's shoes.)

Saying alluding to the thick country shoes worn by A.-M.-J.-J. DUPIN, aîné (the elder) (1783-1865). He was in the habit of attending each year the agricultural meetings at Clamecy, of which he was the founder, dressed in country fashion, and his "gros souliers" became quite celebrated.

Les temps heroïques sont passés. (The heroic times have passed away).

LÉON GAMBETT Cf. "Ils sont pa

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Words attributed to LOUIS XIV (1638-1715) in a speech to his The parliament, April 13, 1655. words Etat occur in it as reported in the Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, and have probably given rise the expression. Napoleon, examining his position in 1813, quoted the phrase. . . . à compter de ce jour, "l'Etat ce fut moi!" ( from that moment, I was the State).-Mémorial de SainteHélène.

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M. le duc de Noailles in his Histoire de Mme. de Maintenon (vol. 3, pp. 667-70) denies that the famous phrase was ever uttered by the king, but says the "mot will "stick to him, because it is within "the truth, if it is taken in its true "sense: the sentiment of the close "relationship which exists between "the interest of the country and "that of royalty." It may be noted that in his instructions to his son he says: "Quand on a l'État en vue, on Le bien de "travaille pour soi. "l'un fait la gloire de l'autre. "(When one has the State in view, "it is working for one's self. The "good of one makes the glory of the other)." Again: "La nation e fait pas corps en France, elle eside tout entière dans la personne du roy." (The nation does not conitute a corps in France; it resides entirely in the king's person.)Louis XIV, etc., The following is from nique for May, 1851,


r à notre souscripteur eth, avant Louis XIV, ou à peu près dit: L'État

"c'est moi! sans entrer avec lui "dans une polémique sur la politique "et la religion d'Elisabeth," etc. [the point is not pursued]. (Without denying to Our subscriber that Elizabeth, before Louis XIV, had said or almost said, "I am the State," without entering into a discussion with him as to Elizabeth's politics and religion, etc.)

Le temps et moi. (Time and I.)

Cardinal MAZARINS' motto (160261). Cf. 'Oft was this saying in our bishop's mouth,' says Lloyd, before ever it was in Philip the Second's "Time and I will challenge any two in the world." State Worthies (1670, pp. 88-9). See Time is on our side.

L'étude a été pour moi le

souverain remède contre les dégoûts de la vie, n'ayant jamais eu de chagrin qu'une heure de lecture n'ait dissipé. (Study has been for me the sovereign remedy against life's mortifications, never having had a chagrin that an hour's reading has not dissipated.)

Saying of MONTESQUIEU (16891755) in his youth.

L'Europe sera républicaine ou

cosaque. (Europe will be Republican or Cossack.) Prophecy usually attributed to NAPOLEON (1769-1821), but probably derived from the following remark made by him.

car dans l'état actuel des "choses, avant dix ans, tout "l'Europe peut être cosaque, ou "toute en république." (... for in the present state of things before ten years, all Europe may be Cossack, or all Republican).-Mémorial de Ste. Hélène, vol. 3, p. 111 (1828). L'exactitude est la politesse des rois. (Punctuality is the politeness of kings.)

Saying of LOUIS XVIII (17551824).-Souvenirs de J. Laffitte, vol. 1, p. 150.

L'exploitation de l'homme par l'homme. (The exploiting of man by man.)


Phrase used by socialists. occurs in a letter from le PÈRE ENFANTIN (1796-1864) dated Nov. 15, 1828, " l'exploitation sans travail de l'homme par l'homme." (... the exploiting without work of man by man.)-Euvres de SaintSimon et d'Enfantin, 1872, vol. 25, p. 109. The phrase was used in 1840 at a banquet in a speech by the banker GOUDCHAUX.-Thureau Dangin, Hist. de la Monarchie de juillet, vol. 4, p. 182.

L'heure est venue de guérir toutes mes plaies par une seule. (The time has come to cure all my wounds with a single one.) HENRI II (1595-1632) duc de Montmorency and marshal of France, when his surgeon pressed him to let his wounds be dressed. He was decapitated the same day.

L'homme malade. (The sick man.)

According to the Annuaire historique for 1853 (p. 66 and following) this celebrated phrase was used by the Emperor NICHOLAS I of Russia (1796-1855) in a conversation with Sir E. Hamilton Seymour at a soirée given by the Grand-Duchess Hélène. He said "Tenez, nous avons sur les "bras un homme malade." (We have on our hands a sick man.) Also said to have been used by him when in England in 1844 in conversation with the Duke of Wellington and Lord Aberdeen, referring to Turkey. "We have on our hands "a sick man, a very sick man. It "would be a great misfortune if one "of these days he should happen to

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