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DEMONAX (2nd cent. A.D.), Greek philosopher and contemporary of Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius, who lived 100 years and allowed himself to die of hunger.-Last words (in their Latin form): but see λήγει μὲν ἀγὼν τῶν καλλίστων. The phrase "Acta est fabula" was used in ancient times to inform the people that they might go home, the spectacle being ended. Augustus,

(63 B.C.-14 A.D.) on his death-bed, asked his friends around him whether they thought he had played his part in life well, and quoted the following two lines from a Greek poet :

Εἰ δὲ πᾶν ἔχει καλῶς, τῷ παιγνίῳ Δότε κρότον, καὶ πάντες ὑμεῖς μετὰ

χαρᾶς κτυπήσατε

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ad Kalendas Graecas. (. the Greek Calends). AUGUSTUS (63 B.C.-14 A.D.)—a common expression of his in connection with debts owing to him, which he expected would never be paid, seeing that there were no calends in the Greek months. (Suetonius, Twelve Caesars: Augustus, 87.) Cf.

"Ad Graecas, bone rex, fient mandata Kalendas.' (Your commands, noble king, shall be obeyed at the Greek Kalends),

QUEEN ELIZABETH (1533-1603) -message sent to Philip II of Spain, through his


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"Behold with what little wisdom the "world is governed." Cf. for thou little thinkest what a little foolery governs the whole world."-(John Selden, Table Talk: Pope).

Aut Cæsar, aut nihil. (Either

Caesar, or nothing).

CÆSAR BORGIA (c. 1457-1507)— his motto. See Ὦ μήτερ, τήμερον ἢ ἀρχιέρεια &c. Cf. "Either a man or a mouse" (Proverb). Ave, Imperator, morituri te salu

tamus ! (Hail, Cæsar! we who are about to die salute you).

Formula used by the ROMAN GLADIATORS, when defiling past the

imperial box in the circus before fighting. Cf. Suetonius, Twelve Casars: Claudius, 21. Often quoted "Ave, Cæsar, etc."

Bis dat qui cito dat. (He gives twice who gives quickly).

FRANCIS BACON (1561-1626) Lord Verulam-in his speech, May 7, 1617, on taking his seat as Lord Keeper. Cf.

Bis dat qui dat celeriter. (He gives twice who gives quickly)PUBLILIUS SYKUS, Sententiae, 225); and Ns μéya тò μкрóν ἐστιν ἐν καιρῷ δοθεν. (How great the small gift is when given in season)MENANDER, Monosticha, 752.

Cæsarem se non regem esse [re

spondit]. (I am no king, but Cæsar).

CAIUS JULIUS CESAR (100-44 B.C.)-on declining the title of king (Suetonius, Twelve Casars, 79). Castigat ridendo mores. (He corrects morals by ridicule). JEAN SANTEUL (1630-97) — Motto given to the harlequin Joseph Biancolelli, called Dominique (1640-88).

Cave ne cadas! (Beware lest you fall!)

In ancient Rome it was the custom, when honouring a victorious general, to place behind the chariot in which he rode to the Capitol a slave who repeated the above words amid the shouts of the

people. See Hominem memento


Civis sum romanus. (I am a Roman citizen).

Said by the Romans under certain circumstances, when wishing to recall the privileges attaching to the title. Lord Palmerston (1784-1865) used the phrase as "Civis Romanus sum in the House of Commons, June 25, 1850:

and whether, as the Roman in days of old held himself free from indignity, when he could say Civis Romanus sum, so also a British subject, in whatever land

he may be, shall feel confident that the watchful eye and the strong arm of England will protect him against injustice and wrong (Sir W. Reid, Life of W. E. Glad stone, 1899, p. 357).

Consule tibi! (Look to thyself!)

ST. AUGUSTINE (354-430)-in his first sermon, In natali Cypriani martyris, in which he recounts the first dialogue between St. Cyprian and the pro-consul before whom the bishop of Carthage appeared:

Cum enim ejus immobilem mentem videret, quando ei dixit: Jusserunt te principes cæremoniari,' responditque ille : Non facio, adjecit et ait: Consule tibi !' (When he saw that his mind was not to be shaken, after he had said to him 'Your rulers have given orders that you shou d worship,' he replied, I will not do it,' and added Look to thyself!'

Cui adhæreo præest. (He whom I favour wins).

Motto on the tent of HENRI VIII. (1491-1547) at the Field of the Cloth of Gold, June 1520.

Cum dignitate otium. (Ease with dignity).

CICERO (106-43 B.C.)-alluding to literature practised by statesmen retired from affairs of state (Cicero, Pro Sestio, xlv., 98). The phrase occurs also in Ad Familiares i, 9, 21, and in De Oratore, i, I, I. Cf.

Quid est enim dulcius otio literato? (What is more delightful than lettered ease?)- CICERO, Tusculana Disputationes; V., 36, 105.

The phrase is usually quoted as 'Otium cum dignitate.'

Decet imperatorem stantem mori.
-See Imperatorem stantem
mori oportere.

esse Carthaginem. (Carthage must be blotted out). CATO MAJOR (234-149 B.C.): he is said to have often added these words to his speeches when giving his opinion on any subject whatever. On the other hand, Publius Scipio, called Nasica (fl. 2nd cent. B. C.), used to end all his speeches by saying: "And I further am of opinion that Carthage should be left alone."

(Florus, Epitome Rerum Romanarum, ii, 15, § 4; Plutarch, Lives: Cato Major, 27).

De mortuis nil nisi bonum-See Τὸν τεθνηκότα μὴ κακολογεῖν. Deo erexit Voltaire. (Voltaire erected it to God).

VOLTAIRE (1694-1778 - inscription placed over a church he had built at Ferney; altered from Deo soli (To God alone), a common dedication. Cf.

Nor his, who for the bane of thousands born,

Built God a Church, and laugh'd his word to scorn.-Cowper, Retirement, 11. 687-8. (Evidently an allusion to the church at Ferney, erected by Voltaire.)

Desponsamus te, mare, in signum veri perpetuique dominii. (We wed thee, O sea, in sign of a true and perpetual dominion).

Formula in use by the VENETIAN DOGES at the annual ceremony of 'wedding' the Adriatic.

Diem perdidi! (I've lost a day!)

THE EMPEROR TITUS (40-81)— on recalling the fact that he had not benefited anyone that day (Suetonius, Twelve Cæsars: Titus, 8). Cf.

"I've lost a day," the prince who nobly cried

Had been an emperor without his crown; Of Rome? say, rather, lord of human race: He spoke, as if deputed by mankind. — Young, Night Thoughts, ii, 99; "Count that day lost whose low descending sun

Views from thy hand no worthy action done."

Stamford, Art of Reading, 1803, 3rd. edit.

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Who sighed at evening, if his favored hand Had not by his benefits crowned the day.) Boileau, Epitre Ière. (au Roi), l. 109; "La plus perdue de toutes les journées est celle où l'on n'a pas ri." (The most wasted of all days is the one when we have not laughed)-Chamfort, Maximes et Pensées, ch. I. (ed. 1824, vol. i, p. 355). See Den gestrigen Tag suchen.

Domine Domine! fac finem!

fac finem! (Lord! Lord! make an end! make an end!) DESIDERIUS ERASMUS (1465 or 7-1536) Last words.

Ego et meus rex (I and my King.)

CARDINAL WOLSEY (1471-1530) -Formula when chancellor of England.) Cf.

"Then, that, in all you writ to Rome, or else

To foreign princes Ego et Rex meus Was still inscribed; in which you brought the King

To be your servant.

Shakspere, King Henry VIII, act 3, sc. 2, (Duke of Norfolk).

Ego sum rex Romanus et super grammaticam. (I am king of the Romans and above grammar).

The EMPEROR SIGISMUND (13681437) at the Council of Constance in 1414, on a grammatical error, in his speech to the assembled prelates, being pointed out to him. (Wolfgang Menzel's Geschichte der Deutschen, ch. 325 (1837 ed., vol. ii, p. 477); also Carlyle, Frederick the Great, ch. xiv.) Čf.

"La grammaire, qui sait régenter, jusqu'aux rois,

Et les fait, la main haute obéir a ses lois !" (Grammar which knows how to govern even kings,

And with a high hand makes them obey its laws!)-Molière, Les Femmes Savantes, act 2, sc. 6. Cf. Cæsar non supra grammaticos. (Cæsar is not above the grammarians)-Latin Proverb.

Erravi cum Petro, sed non flevi

cum Petro. (Like Peter, I have erred, unlike Peter, I have not wept).




1555), bishop of Winchester-Last words.

Et tu quoque, mi fili. (And thou also, my son).

JULIUS CAESAR (100-44 B.C.)— dying words, but generally quoted as: Et tu Brute ?-See Kai où τέκνον.

Evasisti. (Thou art saved.)

The EMPEROR HADRIAN (76138) the day he came into power, meeting an old enemy and noticing his embarrassment.

Ex luce lucellum. (Out of light a little gain).

Motto jokingly suggested by ROBERT LOWE, Viscount Sherbrooke (1811-92) for the new label when he proposed a tax of d. per box on lucifer matches. Owing to the opposition the proposal was withdrawn (Dict. Nat. Biogr., vol. xxxiv, p. 200.) Cf. also Reed, Life of Gladstone, p. 572.

Festina lente-See Σπεύδε βραδέως. Fiat justitia, et pereat mundus. (Let justice be done, though the world perish).

Motto of FERDINAND I of Germany (1503-64)-(Johannes Manlius, Loci Communes, 1563, vol. ii, p. 290).

Fiat justitia, ruat cælum. (Let justice be done, though the skies fall).

LORD MANSFIELD (1704-93)— phrase used (quoted) in the case of Rex. v. Wilkes, Wilkes having been sentenced to outlawry for publication of No. 45 of The North Briton in his absence from the court, (Burrows, Reports, A.D. 1770, vol. iv, 2562), and to be found in Ward's Simple Cobbler of Agawam in America, 1647. In a work called Fovre Treatises, &c, by Iohn Downame, London, 1609, p. 67, occur the words:

"For better it is that a private man should perish, than that the publike administra tion of law and justice should be stayed and hindered," and opposite is printed in italics "Fiat justitia et ruat cælum." Cf. William Watson, Decacordon of Ten Quodlibeticall Questions (1602), pp. 8 & 338:

Do well and right, and let the world sinkGeorge Herbert, Country Parson, ch. 29. Ruat cælum, fiat voluntas tua-Sir T. Browne, Religio Medici, p. ii, sec. 11—“. if that cannot be, I say again the same that I wrote, fiat justitia," said by Charles I (1600-49), referring to the Earl of Strafford (Percy Anecdotes, vol. i. p. 120). See Périssent les Colonies &c. (note); Das Recht muss seinen Gang haben &c. Finis Poloniæ. (The end of


Said to have been uttered by KOSCIUSKO (1756-1817), at Maciejowice, Oct. 10, 1794 (Südpreussische Zeitung Oct. 25, 1794); but denied by him in a letter dated Nov. 12, 1803, to Count de Ségur, in the first edition of whose Histoire des

Principaux Évènements du règne de Frédéric-Guillaume II, it appeared: later editions do not contain it. Cf. "Hope, for a season, bade the world farewell,

And Freedom shriek'd-as Kosciusko fell!"-Campbell, Pleasures of Hope, 1. 381, and Ode on the Fall of Poland, by Francis Hastings Doyle (Miscellaneous Verses, 1834 ed., pp. 23-9). Flavit, et dissipati sunt. (He

blew, and they were scattered). Inscription on a medal struck by order of QUEEN ELIZABETH (1533

1603), to commemorate the defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588. It was struck at Middleburg, in Holland.


Flavit. et. dissipati. sunt. 1588. Spanish fleet dispersed and wrecked; above, in clouds, the name of Jehovah in Hebrew.'-Medallic Illustrations of Brit. Hist., vol. i, p. 145. Cf. "Thou didst blow with thy wind, the sea covered them: they sank as lead in the mighty waters' Exodus, xv, 10. "Gott der Allmächtge blies, Und die Armada flog nach allen Winden. (God the Almighty remained And the Armada flew to all winds)-Schiller, Die unüberwindliche Flotte.

Fortis dura coquit.

(The brave

man digests hard things). A favourite motto of RICHELIEU (1585-1642)--an ostrich with the above inscription.

Habes.... . confitentem reum.

(You have a defendant who pleads guilty).

CICERO (106-43 B.C.)-in his speech for Ligarius, exiled by Cæsar for having borne arms against him in Africa (Pro Ligario, i, 1, § 2). Haec est fides? (Is this fidelity ?) The EMPEROR Nero (37-68)—Last words.


Haec ornamenta mea sunt. (These are my jewels).

CORNELIA (2nd cent. B.C.), mother of the Gracchi-when presenting her children to a lady who had been showing her her jewels, &c. (Valerius Maximus, bk. iv, ch. 4).

"Pointing to such, well might Cornelia


"When the rich casket shone in bright array,

"These are my jewels?"-Samuel Rogers, Human Life.

Hannibal ad portas. (Hannibal is at the gates.)

The Romans' cry of alarm after the battle of Cannes (216 B.C.) Sometimes Catiline's name is substituted for Hannibal's, alluding to the revolt of that person in the time of Cicero. Alluded to by Mirabeau

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