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Οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν πολέμῳ δὶς ἁμαρτεῖν. (In war it is not permitted to make a second mistake).
LAMACHUS (d. 414 B.C.)-to one of his captains whom he was reprimanding for some fault he had committed, the captain having said that he would not do it again. (Plutarch, Apophthegmata: Lamachi, 1).
Οὐκ εὐτρεπὴς οὗτος ; οὐ νεουργής ; ἀλλ ̓ οὐκ ἂν εἰδείη τις ὑμῶν, καθ' ὅ τι θλίβεται μέρος οὑμὸς πούς (Is it not a fine [shoe]? Is it not a new one? and yet none of you can say where my foot is pinched).
A ROMAN put away his wife, and, on his friends blaming him, saying: "Is she not chaste? is she not beautiful? is she not fruitful?" he held out his shoe, making the above remarks. (Plutarch, Lives: Emilius Paulus, v). Cf. "But I wot best wher wryngith me my scho."-Chaucer, Marchandes Tale, 1. 399.
Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ Πλάτωνος ἄνθρωπος. (Here is Plato's 'man').
DIOGENES (B. C. 412-323)-on bringing into the school a cock, which he had previously plucked. Plato had defined man as 'a twolegged animal without feathers.' With flat nails' was afterwards added.
*Ανθρωπος ζῶον ἄπτερον, δίπουν, πλατυώνυχον. (Man is_a wingless animal, with two feet and flat nails). -Plato, Definitions (ed. Stephens, P. 415, A; Cf. Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Diogenes, vi., 2, 6). Cf.: Homo est animal bipes rationale. (Man is a two-footed reasoning animal).-Boëthius, De Consolatione Philosophiae, v, Prosa, iv.
Οὐ τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους ἐρωτᾶν πόσοι εἰσὶν, ἀλλὰ ποῦ εἰσὶν οἱ πολέμιοι. (The Spartans do not ask how many the enemy are, but where they are).
KING AGIS (d. 399 B.C.)-(Plutarch, Apophthegmata Agidos, 1). CLEOMENES (d. 220 B.C.) quoted, or rather parodied, this saying when he said to his countrymen uάтη Λακεδαιμόνιοι πυνθάνονται περὶ τῶν πολεμίων, οὐ πόσοι εἰσὶν, ἀλλὰ ποῦ εἰσίν (It is useless for the Spartans to ask not how many their enemies are, but where they are), alluding to the flight of the Achaeans near Pallantium. (Plutarch, Lives: Cleomenes, iv). Cf.:
Tant de victoires avaient donné aux Suédois une si grande confiance, qu'ils ne s'informaient jamais du nombre de leurs ennemis, mais seulement du lieu où ils étaient. (So many victories had given such great confidence to the Swedes, that they never asked the number of their enemies, but only asked where they were.)-Voltaire.
Οὐδεὶς γὰρ δι ̓ ἐμὲ τῶν ὄντων Αθηναίων
μέλαν ἱμάτιον περιεβάλετο. (For no Athenian ever wore mourning through my means).
PERICLES (494-429 B.C.)-on his death-bed, overhearing his friends enumerating his many claims to fame, and reminding them that they did not mention his greatest and most glorious claim (Plutarch, Lives: Pericles, 38).
Οὐδὲν ἀνδρείας χρήζομεν ἐὰν πάντες ὦμεν δίκαιοι. (We should have no need of courage, if justice were universal).
AGESILAUS (438-360 B. C.)-being asked which was the better, justice or valour (Plutarch, Apophthegmata: Agesilai, 3).
Οὐδὲν ἄρα δυνατὸν γενέσθαι ἄκοντος Beoù. (It is impossible, it seems, to do anything against the will of heaven!)
HANNIBAL (247-182 B.C.)-on hearing that the bones of Marcellus, which he had sent in a silver urn to his son, had been scattered on the ground in a struggle between their escort and some Numidians. (Plutarch, Lives: Marcellus, xxx). Οὐδὲν αὕτη ὑμᾶς λελύπηκεν ἡ ὀφρὺς,
ὁ δὲ τούτων γέλως πολλὰ κλαῦσαι τὴν πόλιν πεποίηκεν. (Yet his frown has never done you any harm; but the laughter of these men has brought great sorrow upon the State).
CHARES (A. c. 367-338 B.C.)-the Athenians laughing when he mentioned Phocion's gloomy brow in a speech. (Plutarch, Lives: Phocion, v) Οὐδὲν ἦν ἄρα θαυμαστὸν ἄρχειν γυναῖκας ἀνθρώπων φευγόντων τὴν ἐλευθερίαν. (No wonder women bear rule in a city where men fear to be free).
CLEOMENES (d. 220 B.C.)referring to Alexandria, whose inhabitants were afraid to join in his conspiracy. (Plutarch, Lives: Cleomenes, xxxvii).
Οὐδὲν· οὐδὲ γινώσκω τὸν ἄνθρωπον,
ἀλλ ̓ ἐνοχλοῦμαι πανταχοῦ τὸν Δίκαιον ἀκούων. (None at all, neither know I the man; but I am tired of everywhere hearing him called 'the Just').
A GREEK PEASANT-to Aristides (d. 469 B.C.), not knowing who he was, on being asked whether Aristides had ever done him any harm.
Οὐκ ̓Αθηναῖος οὐδὲ Ἕλλην ἀλλὰ κόσμιος. (Ι of Athen
Πόλις καὶ πατρὶς, ὡς μὲν ̓Αντωνίνῳ, μοι ή Ρώμη, ὡς δὲ ἀνθρώπῳ, ὁ κόσμος. (My city and country, as Antoninus, is kome, but as a man, the world).
Οὐκ αἰσχύνῃ καλῶς οὕτω ψάλλων ; (Are you not ashamed to play so well?)
PHILIP OF MACEDON (382336 B.C.)-to his son, who played brilliantly on the harp at an entertainment. (Plutarch, Lives: Pericles, i.) Antisthenes (fl. 366 B.C.) said, on hearing that Ismenias was an excellent flute-player:
̓Αλλ ̓ ἄνθρωπος μοχθηρός· οὐ γὰρ ἂν οὕτω σπουδαῖος ἦν αὐλητής. (But he must be a poor sort of a man, for otherwise he would not have been such an excellent piper). Id., ibid., i.
Οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν πολέμῳ δὶς ἁμαρτεῖν.
Οὐκ εὐτρεπὴς οὗτος ; οὐ νεουργής;
A ROMAN put away his wife,
Πάντα κινῆσαι πέτρον. no stone unturned). — Euripides Heraclidae, 1. 1002; and
'Tis good for us to live in gravel-pits,* but not for gravel-pits to live in us; a man in this case should leave no stone unturned. -Swift, Journal to Stella, letter 34. Πανταχόθεν ὁμοία ἐστὶν ἡ εἰς ᾅδου
κατάβασις. (The descent to Hades is alike from every side).
ANAXAGORAS (B.C. 499-427)--to one who was grieved that he should die in a foreign country. (Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Anaxagoras, § 11). Πάνυ μὲν οὖν· λέγω μὴ μνησικακεῖν
τοῖς Αθηναίοις. (Certainly, my message is that he bear no malice against the Athenians). PHOCION (C. 400-317 B.C.)— when asked shortly before his death, if he had any message for his son, Phocus. (Plutarch, Lives: Phocion, xxxvi).
Παραπλήσια ἔργα εἶναι νομέως ἀγαθοῦ καὶ βασιλέως ἀγαθοῦ. (The functions of a good shepherd and those of a good king are much the same).
CYRUS (d. 529 B.C.)-(Xenophon, Cyropaedia, viii, 2, 14).
Πάταξον μὲν, ἄκουσον δέ. (Strike,
but hear me).
* Patients were sent to Kensington gravelpits for the sake of air.
THEMISTOCLES (514-449 B.C.)— to Eurybiades, the Spartan, who had raised his staff as if to strike him. (Plutarch, Lives: Themistocles, xi). Cf.:
"Tenez, monsieur, battez-moi plutôt, et me laissez rire tout mon soûl; cela me fera plus de bien.' (Look, sir, beat me rather, and let me laugh my fill; that will do me more good).-Molière, Le Bourgeois gentilhomme, act 3, sc. 2.
See Frappe, mais va-t-en.
γὰρ οὕτω παρανόμως καὶ ἀδίκως ἀπολλύμενος κρείττων εἰμὶ τῶν ȧvαιроûvтwv. (Stay your tears, friend; for in my unlawful and wrongful death I am better than those that are murdering me).
KING AGIS (d. 399 B.C.)-on being led to execution, to one of the prison officers who was weeping. (Plutarch, Lives: Agis, xx).
Πλεῖν ἀνάγκη, ζῆν οὐκ ἀνάγκη.
is necessary to sail it is not necessary to live).
POMPEY (c. 106-48 B.C.)-when about to sail for Sicily, &c., to collect grain, the ships' masters being unwilling to start. (Plutarch, Lives: Pompey, xi). See Je n'en vois pas la nécessité.
πλείονα δ ̓ ἂν ἔτι τούτων εἰρήκειν, εἰ πλείων παρῆν οἶνος ἡμῖν. and we should have said more [evil] of you, if we had had more wine).
A YOUTH-to PYRRHUS (d. 272 B.C.). The youth, with others, had been speaking ill of Pyrrhus over their wine (Plutarch, Lives: Pyrrhus, viii).
Ποιητὰ δὲ νόμιμα εἶναι. (Whatever is, is right).
DEMOCRITUS (B. C. 460-357)— Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Democritus, § 45). Cf.:
Whatever is, is right.-Pope, Essay on Man, Ep. i, 1. 294.
Πολὺ δὲ μεῖζον τὸ ἐπιθυμεῖν ὧν δεῖ. (Yes, a much greater; for a man to desire no more than is necessary).
MENEDEMUS (b.c. 385 B.C.)— on hearing another maintain that there could be no greater good than for a man to get what he desired. (Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Menedemus, § 136).
Πόσων ἐγὼ χρείαν οὐκ ἔχω. (How
many things are there of which I have no need?)
SOCRATES (B.C. 468-399)-(Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Socrates, § 25.
πότε ἄρα παυσόμεθα νικῶντες ; (I wonder when we shall leave off being victorious!)
PHOCION (c. 400-317 B.C.)— when despatch after despatch arrived from the camp announcing fresh successes (Plutarch, Lives: Phocion, xxiii). See' túxn &c.
Πρὶν δ ̓ ἂν τελευτήσῃ, ἐπισχέειν, μηδὲ καλέειν κω ὄλβιον ἀλλ ̓ εὐτυχέα. (Wait till a man's life be ended; till then call him not happy, but lucky).
SOLON (639-558 B.C.), one of the Seven Sages of Greece-to Croesus, who asked if he did not consider him happy. (Herodotus, Histories, i, 32). This saying, in various forms, became a commonplace of classical literature.
. . ᾧ δ' εἰς τέλος ὁ δαίμων ἔθετο τὴν εὐπραξίαν, τοῦτον εὐδαίμονα νομίζομεν. (.. him only we call happy to whom the deity has vouchsafed happiness to the end.) (Plutarch, Lives: Solon, xxvii). Generally quoted
as 'Call no man happy till his death.'
Πρότερόν ἐστι τοῦ πρωρατεῦσαι τὸ φυρᾶσαι. (Before setting the watch we must think of provisioning the ship-Harbottle). DEMADES ( d. 318 B.C)(Plutarch, Lives: Cleomenes, xxvii).
Πῦρ μαχαίρᾳ μὴ σκαλεύειν. (Do not poke fire with a sword). PYTHAGORAS (6th cent. B.C.)— (Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Pythagoras, § 19.
Πῶς δ ̓ ἂν οὐκ εἴη Χαρίλαος ἀνὴρ ἀγαθὸς, ὃς οὐδὲ τοῖς πονητ ροῖς χαλεπός ἐστι; (How can Charilaus be anything but a good man?--he is not harsh even to the wicked).
KING ARCHELAUS (d. 405 B.C.) -when hearing King Charilaus, his brother-king, extolled for his goodness. (Plutarch Lives: Lycur gus, v.)
Πῶς δ ̓ οὐ μέλλω φέρειν βαρέως
ἀπολιπών, πόλιν ἐχθροὺς τοιούτους ἔχουσαν οἴους ἐν ἑτέρᾳ φίλους εὑρεῖν οὐ ῥᾴδιόν ἐστιν ; (How can I help being grieved at leaving a city where my very enemies are such that it were hard to find their like to be my friends in any other country). DEMOSTHENES (c. 382-322 B. C.) -bursting into tears on his political opponents begging him to accept money for his journey after his escape from Athens (Plutarch, Lives: Demosthenes, xxvi).
“Ρεῖν τὰ ὅλα ποταμοῦ δίκην. (ΑΠ things flow onward, like a river).
HERACLITUS (A. B.C. 513.)— Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Heraclitus, § 6). Commonly quoted as πάντα ῥεῖ.