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Ο ἂν ὑμῶν τὴν μάχαιραν ὀξυτέραν Exp. (To him whose sword is the sharper).

PYRRHUS (318-272 B.C.)-when asked by one of his sons to which of them he would leave his empire. (Plutarch, Lives: Pyrrhus, ix).

Ὁ ἀπροσδόκητος [θάνατος] (That

[death] which is unexpected). JULIUS CAESAR (100-44 B.C.)— the conversation turning in his presence, on what was the best kind of death. (Plutarch, Lives: Caesar, Ixiii).

̔Ο εἰδὼς λόγον καὶ καιρὸν οἶδεν. (He who knows how to speak knows also when).

ARCHIDAMIDAS (d. 328 B.C.)— remark when Hecatæus, the sophist, having been invited to the public table, was blamed for having said nothing during the whole of the supper-time. (Plutarch, Lives: Lycurgus, xx).

Οἱ λόγοι σου, ὦ ξένε, πόλεως δέονται. (This language, my friend, requires a state to back it).

LYSANDER (d. 395 B.C.)-to a Megarian who used considerable freedom of speech towards him. [Megara was always treated by the Greeks as a negligible quantity] (Plutarch, Lives: Lysander, xxii).

Ο ταύτης κρατῶν βέλτιστα περὶ γῆς ὅρων διαλέγεται. (He that is master of this, is in possession of the best argument as to frontier lines).

LYSANDER (d. 395 B.C.)-drawing his sword at the same time, referring to a dispute between the Argives and the Lacedæmonians about their frontier (Plutarch, Lives: Lysander, xxii). See Ultima ratio regem.

Οἱ μὲν ἄνδρες γεγόνασι μοι γυναίκες ai dè yvvaîkes åvôpes. (My men have become women, and my women men).

XERXES (d. 465 B.C.)-after the battle of Salamis, referring to the bravery of Artemisia (Herodotus, Histories, viii, 88).

Οπου γὰρ ἂν τῆς Ἰταλίας ἐγὼ κρούσω τῷ ποδὶ τὴν γῆν, ἀναδύσονται καὶ πεζικαὶ καὶ ἱππικαὶ δυνάμεις. (For in whatever part of Italy I stamp the earth with my foot, there will spring up forces, both footsoldiers and horsemen).

POMPEY (c. 106-48 B.C.)—to those who said that there were not sufficent troops to repulse Cæsar, (Plutarch, Lives: Pompey, lvii; Apophthegmata: Pompey, xi).

Οπου γὰρ ἡ λεοντῆ μὴ ἐφικνεῖται,

προσραπτέον ἐκεῖ τὴν ἀλωπεκήν. (Where the lion's skin will not reach, we must sew the fox's skin on to it).

LYSANDER (d. 395 B.C.)-thosewho said that Hercules' posterity ought not to make use of deceit in war, (Plutarch, Lives: Lysander, vii ; Apophthegmata Laconica: Lysander, 3). Cf. Coudre la peau du renard à celle du lion.-French saying.

If the lion's skin cannot, the fox's shall.-Eng. Prov.

Si leonina pellis non satis est, assuenda vulpina,-Latin Prov.

Also Lytton, Richelieu, act i, sc. 2. Οὐ γὰρ δὴ χώρην γε οὐδεμίαν κατόψεται ὁ ἥλιος ὅμουρον ἐοῦσαν τῇ ἡμετέρῃ. (Never shall the sun shine on any country whose frontiersmarch with ours).

XERXES (d. 465 B.C.)—in a speech to the Persian nobles. (Herodotus, Histories, vii, 8).

Οὐ δή πού τι κακὸν λέγων ἐμαυτὸν λέληθα ; (Can I have said something bad without knowing it ?)

PHOCION (c. 400-317 B.C.)—when making a remark in a speech which was vociferously applauded, turning to some of his friends. (Plutarch, Lives: Phocion, viii). See Il m'arrive un grand malheur &c.

Οὐ δοκεῖ ὑμῖν ἄξιον εἶναι λύπης εἰ τηλικοῦτος μὲν ὢν ̓Αλέξανδρος ἐθνῶν τοσούτων ἐβασίλευεν έμοι δὲ λαμπρὸν οὐδὲν οὔπω πέπρακται ; (Do you not think it is a matter for sorrow that, whilst Alexander was king of so many nations at so early an age, I have not yet done anything that is glorious?)

JULIUS CAESAR (100-44 B.C.)— when reading the history of Alexander. He burst into tears, and made the above reply on being asked the reason. (Plutarch Lives: Caesar, xi)

Οὐ δύναται γὰρ ̓Αντίπατρος ἅμα μοι καὶ φίλῳ καὶ κόλακι χρῆσθαι. (Ι cannot be Antipater's friend and toady at the same time).

PHOCION (C. 400-317 B.C.)-when Antipater asked him to perform some disgraceful service for him. (Plutarch, Lives: Phocion, xxx). Cf. "I can't be your friend and your flatterer too."-English Saying.

Οὐ κλέπτω τὴν νίκην. (I do not

steal my victories).

ALEXANDER THE GREAT (356323 B.C.)-when his officers tried to persuade him to fall upon the Persians by night. (Plutarch, Lives: Alexander, xxxi).

Οὐ μόνον δ ̓ ἦν ἄρα τὸ φίλων πεῖραν λαβεῖν οὐ σμικρὸν κακὸν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸ φρονίμων στρατηγών. (It

is no less an evil for a man to have to make trial of his friends, than it is for a state to have occasion to put her generals to the test).

EURIPIDES (481-406 B.C.)quoted by Plutarch, Lives: Fabius Maximus, xvii.

Οὐ παύσεσθε ἡμῖν ὑπεζωσμένοις ξίφη νόμους αναγιγνώσκοντες; (Won't you stop citing laws to us, who are girded with swords ?)

POMPEY (c. 106-48 B.C.)-when the Mamertini protested that the introduction of Roman administration was illegal. (Plutarch, Lives: Pompey, x).

Οὔτε τὰ πολλά γ' ἔπη φρονίμην ἀπεφήνατο δόξαν. ('Tis not a multitude of words that shows a prudent judgment).

THALES (B.C. 636 546)-(Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Thales, § 35). Ου τοι ἀπόβλητ ̓ ἐστὶ θεῶν ἐρικυδέα δῶρα. (The glorious gifts of

the gods are not to be cast away).

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Οὐ τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους ἐρωτᾶν πόσοι εἰσὶν, ἀλλὰ ποῦ εἰσὶν οἱ πολέμιοι. (The Spartans do not ask how many the enemy are, but where they are).

KING AGIS (d. 399 B.C.)—(Plutarch, Apophthegmata Agidos, 1). CLEOMENES (d. 220 B.C.) quoted, or rather parodied, this saying when he said to his countrymen uáτην Λακεδαιμόνιοι πυνθάνονται περὶ τῶν πολεμίων, οὐ πόσοι εἰσὶν, ἀλλὰ ποῦ εἰσίν (It is useless for the Spartans to ask not how many their enemies are, but where they are), alluding to the flight of the Achaeans near Pallantium. (Plutarch, Lives: Cleomenes, iv). Cf.:

Tant de victoires avaient donné aux Suédois une si grande confiance, qu'ils ne s'informaient jamais du nombre de leurs ennemis, mais seulement du lieu où ils étaient. (So many victories had given such great confidence to the Swedes, that they never asked the number of their enemies, but only asked where they were.)-Voltaire.

Οὐδεὶς γὰρ δι ̓ ἐμὲ τῶν ὄντων Αθηναίων

μέλαν ἱμάτιον περιεβάλετο. (For no Athenian ever wore mourning through my means).

PERICLES (494-429 B.C.)-on his death-bed, overhearing his friends enumerating his many claims to fame, and reminding them that they did not mention his greatest and most glorious claim (Plutarch, Lives: Pericles, 38).

Οὐδὲν ἀνδρείας χρῄζομεν ἐὰν πάντες ὦμεν δίκαιοι. (We should have no need of courage, if justice were universal).

AGESILAUS (438-360 B.C.)—being asked which was the better, justice or valour (Plutarch, Apophthegmata: Agesilai, 3).

Οὐδὲν ἄρα δυνατὸν γενέσθαι ἄκοντος Ocou. (It is impossible, it seems, to do anything against the will of heaven!)

IIANNIBAL (247-182 B.C.)—on hearing that the bones of Marcellus, which he had sent in a silver urn to his son, had been scattered on the ground in a struggle between their escort and some Numidians. (Plutarch, Lives: Marcellus, xxx). Οὐδὲν αὕτη ὑμᾶς λελύπηκεν ἡ ὀφρὺς,

ὁ δὲ τούτων γέλως πολλὰ κλαῦσαι τὴν πόλιν πεποίηκεν. (Yet his frown has never done you any harm; but the laughter of these men has brought great sorrow upon the State).

CHARES (A. c. 367-338 B.C.)—the Athenians laughing when he mentioned Phocion's gloomy brow in a speech. (Plutarch, Lives: Phocion, v) Οὐδὲν ἦν ἄρα θαυμαστὸν ἄρχειν γυναῖκας ἀνθρώπων φευγόντων τὴν ἐλευθερίαν. (No wonder women bear rule in a city where men fear to be free). CLEOMENES (d. 220 B.C.)referring to Alexandria, whose inhabitants were afraid to join in his conspiracy. (Plutarch, Lives: Cleomenes, xxxvii).

Οὐδὲν· οὐδὲ γινώσκω τὸν ἄνθρωπον,

ἀλλ ̓ ἐνοχλοῦμαι πανταχοῦ τὸν Δίκαιον ἀκούων. (None at all, neither know I the man; but I am tired of everywhere hearing him called 'the Just').

A GREEK PEASANT-to Aristides (d. 469 B.C.), not knowing who he was, on being asked whether Aristides had ever done him any harm.

Οὐκ Αθηναῖος οὐδ ̓ Ἕλλην ἀλλὰ Kóσμos. (I am a citizen, not of Athens or of Greece, but of the world).

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Πόλις καὶ πατρὶς, ὡς μὲν ̓Αντωνίνῳ, μοι ἡ Ῥώμη, ὡς δὲ ἀνθρώπῳ, ὁ κόσμος. (My city and country, as Antoninus, is Rome, but as a man, the world).

Οὐκ αἰσχύνῃ καλῶς οὕτω ψάλλων; (Are you not ashamed to play so well?)

PHILIP OF MACEDON (382336 B.C.)-to his son, who played brilliantly on the harp at an entertainment. (Plutarch, Lives: Pericles, i.) Antisthenes (A. 366 B.C.) said, on hearing that Ismenias was an excellent flute-player:

̓Αλλ' ἄνθρωπος μοχθηρός· οὐ γὰρ ἂν οὕτω σπουδαῖος ἦν αὐλητής. (But he must be a poor sort of a man, for otherwise he would not have been such an excellent piper). ibid., i.

Id.,

. . οὐκ ἂν ἡ Ἑλλὰς δύο Λυσάνδρους (Greece could not

ἤνεγκε. have borne two Lysanders). ETEOKLES, the Lacedæmonian -alluding to Lysander's cruelty (Plutarch, Lives: Lysander, xix). Archestratus is said to have made a similar remark about Alcibiades. Cf. Alexander's reply to Darius:

μήτε τὴν γῆν ἡλίους δύο μήτε τὴν ̓Ασίαν δύο βασιλεῖς ὑπομένειν. (.. the earth could not brook two suns, nor Asia two masters). (Plutarch, Apophthegmata, Alexandri, 11).

Οὐκ ἔλεγον ὅτι Ξανθίππη βροντώσα καὶ ὕδωρ ποιήσει; (Did I not say that when Xanthippe thundered, she would afterwards also rain?)

SOCRATES (B.C. 468-399)—when his wife lectured him and then threw water in his face. (Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Socrates, § 36).

Οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν πολέμῳ δὶς ἁμαρτεῖν. (In war it is not permitted to make a second mistake).

LAMACHUS (d. 414 B.C.)—to one of his captains whom he was reprimanding for some fault he had committed, the captain having said that he would not do it again. (Plutarch, Apophthegmata: Lamachi, 1).

Οὐκ εὐτρεπὴς οὗτος ; οὐ νεουργής ; ἀλλ ̓ οὐκ ἂν εἰδείη τις ὑμῶν, καθ' ὅ τι θλίβεται μέρος οὐμὸς πούς (Is it not a fine [shoe]? Is it not a new one? and yet none of you can say where my foot is pinched).

A ROMAN put away his wife, and, on his friends blaming him, saying: "Is she not chaste? is she not beautiful? is she not fruitful?" he held out his shoe, making the above remarks. (Plutarch, Lives: Emilius Paulus, v). Cf. "But I wot best wher wryngith me my scho."-Chaucer, Marchandes Tale, 1. 399.

Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ Πλάτωνος ἄνθρωπος. (Here is Plato's 'man').

DIOGENES (B. C. 412-323)—on bringing into the school a cock, which he had previously plucked. Plato had defined man as 'a twolegged animal without feathers.' With flat nails' was afterwards added.

*Ανθρωπος ζῶον ἄπτερον, δίπουν, πλατυώνυχον. (Man is a wingless animal, with two feet and flat nais). -Plato, Definitions (ed. Stephens, p. 415, A; Cf. Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Diogenes, vi., 2, 6). Cf.: Homo est animal bipes rationale. (Man is a two-footed reasoning animal).-Boëthius, De Consolatione Philosophiae, v, Prosa, iv.

Οὐ τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους ἐρωτᾶν πόσοι εἰσὶν, ἀλλὰ ποῦ εἰσὶν οἱ πολέμιοι. (The Spartans do not ask how many the enemy are, but where they are).

KING AGIS (d. 399 B.C.)-(Plutarch, Apophthegmata Agidos, 1). CLEOMENES (d. 220 B.C.) quoted, or rather parodied, this saying when he said to his countrymen μárηv Λακεδαιμόνιοι πυνθάνονται περὶ τῶν πολεμίων, οὐ πόσοι εἰσὶν, ἀλλὰ ποῦ εἰσίν (It is useless for the Spartans to ask not how many their enemies are, but where they are), alluding to the flight of the Achaeans near Pallantium. (Plutarch, Lives: Cleomenes, iv). Cf.:

Tant de victoires avaient donné aux Suédois une si grande confiance, qu'ils ne s'informaient jamais du nombre de leurs ennemis, mais seulement du lieu où ils étaient. (So many victories had given such great confidence to the Swedes, that they never asked the number of their enemies, but only asked where they were.)-Voltaire.

Οὐδεὶς γὰρ δι ̓ ἐμὲ τῶν ὄντων Αθηναίων

μέλαν ἱμάτιον περιεβάλετο. (For no Athenian ever wore mourning through my means).

PERICLES (494-429 B.C.)-on his death-bed, overhearing his friends enumerating his many claims to fame, and reminding them that they did not mention his greatest and most glorious claim (Plutarch, Lives: Pericles, 38).

Οὐδὲν ἀνδρείας χρήζομεν ἐὰν πάντες ὦμεν δίκαιοι. (We should have no need of courage, if justice were universal).

AGESILAUS (438-360 B.C.)-being asked which was the better, justice or valour (Plutarch, Apophthegmata: Agesilai, 3).

Οὐδὲν ἄρα δυνατὸν γενέσθαι ἄκοντος

Oeou. (It is impossible, it seems, to do anything against the will of heaven!)

IIANNIBAL (247-182 B.C.)—on hearing that the bones of Marcellus, which he had sent in a silver urn to his son, had been scattered on the ground in a struggle between their escort and some Numidians. (Plutarch, Lives: Marcellus, xxx). Οὐδὲν αὕτη ὑμᾶς λελύπηκεν ἡ ὀφρὺς,

ὁ δὲ τούτων γέλως πολλὰ κλαῦσαι τὴν πόλιν πεποίηκεν. (Yet his frown has never done you any harm; but the laughter of these men has brought great sorrow upon the State).

CHARES (A. c. 367-338 B.C.)-the Athenians laughing when he mentioned Phocion's gloomy brow in a speech. (Plutarch, Lives: Phocion, v)

Οὐδὲν ἦν ἄρα θαυμαστὸν ἄρχειν γυναῖκας ἀνθρώπων φευγόντων τὴν ἐλευθερίαν. (No wonder women bear rule in a city where men fear to be free).

CLEOMENES (d. 220 B.C.)whose referring to Alexandria, inhabitants were afraid to join in his conspiracy. (Plutarch, Lives: Cleomenes, xxxvii).

Οὐδὲν· οὐδὲ γινώσκω τὸν ἄνθρωπον,

ἀλλ ̓ ἐνοχλοῦμαι πανταχοῦ τὸν Δίκαιον ἀκούων. (None at all, neither know I the man; but I am tired of everywhere hearing him called 'the Just').

A GREEK PEASANT-to Aristides (d. 469 B.C.), not knowing who he was, on being asked who Aristides had ever done h harm.

Οὐκ ̓Αθηναῖος αὐ κόσμιος.

of Athen

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