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rather be the first man here than the second man in Rome). JULIUS CAESAR (100-44 B.C.)— when crossing the Alps on his way to Spain. Plutarch, Lives: Caesar, xi). Cf.

Tel brille au second rang qui s'éclipse au premier. (One shines in the second rank who is outshone in the first).

Voltaire, La Henriade, Chant i. "Esnoav. (They have lived).

CICERO (106-43 B.C.) to the conspirators, who were waiting for the night, thinking that those who had been killed were still alive and might be rescued. He meant that they were alive no more, and so avoided a word of ill-omen, 'dead.' xxii). (Plutarch, Lives: Cicero, There is no Latin authority for the original word, 'vixerunt.'

Εἰ γάρ τι καλὸν ἔργον πεποίηκα, εἰ τοῦτό μου μνημεῖον ἔσται δὲ μηδὲν, οὐδ ̓ οἱ πάντες ἀνδριάντες. (If I have done any good work, that will keep my memory green; but, if not, all the statues in the world will not do it).

AGESILAUS (438-360 B. C.)—on his death-bed, desiring that no statue should be raised to him. (Plutarch, Apophthegmata: Agesilaus, 12). See Εμοῦ δὲ ἐρωτᾶν βούλομαι μᾶλλον &c. Er

γε βασιλεῖς ἔμελλον ἕξειν ἀνταγωνιστάς. (Yes, if I were going to have kings for my opponents).

ALEXANDER THE GREAT, (356323 B.C.)-when asked whether he would contend in the foot-race at Olympia, for he was a remarkably swift runner. (Plutarch, Lives: Alexander, iv.)

Εἰ μὲν ὡς πρεσβευταὶ πολλοὶ

πάρεισιν, εἰ δ ̓ ὡς στρατιῶται, Miyo. (If they have come as ambassadors, they are too many-if as soldiers, too few).

TIGRANES II (89-36 B.C.) — referring to Lucullus's army (Plutarch, Lives: Lucullus, xxvii).

Εἰ μὴ ̓Αλέξανδρος ἤμην, Διογένης ἂν huny. (If I were not Alexander I would be Diogenes). ALEXANDER THE GREAT (356323 B.C.)-to express his admiration of Diogenes, whom he visited at Corinth (Plutarch, Lives: Alexander, xiv). See Μικρὸν ἀπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου μετάστηθι.

. . εἰ χαλεπὸν οὕτως ἐστὶν, ὥστε μηδὲ ὄνον προσελθεῖν χρυσίον κομίζοντα. ([He asked] if it was so difficult that an ass laden with gold could not get in).

PHILIP OF MACEDON (382-336 B.C.) to his scouts who repeated that a stronghold he wished to capture was impregnable. (Plutarch Apophthegmata: Philip, 14). Ερρέθη γοῦν, ὅτι τὰς πόλεις αἱρεῖ τῶν Ελλήνων οὐ Φίλιππος, ἀλλὰ τὸ Φιλίππου χρυσίον. (It was said that the cities of Greece were captured not by Philip, but by Philip's gold).

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Cf. The advice given by the DELPHIC ORACLE to Philip (382-336 B.C.) "Arm yourself with arms of silver, and nothing shall resist you." One of Diogenianus' Proverbs (II, 81) is Αργυραῖς λόγχαις μάχου, καὶ πάντων κρατήσεις. (Fight with spears of silver, and thou wilt overcome all thy foes).

Cf. Fight thou with shafts of silver, and

o'ercome, When no force else can get the masterdom. Herrick, Hesperides, Aphorism 271.

In eo neque auctoritate neque gratia pugnat, sed quibus Philippus omnia castella expugnari posse dicebat, in quae modo asellus onustus auro posset ascendere. (His weapons are neither authority nor popularity, but rather those referred to in the saying of Philip of Macedon, that no city was impregnable so long as it could be entered by an ass laden with gold.) Cicero, Ad Atticum, i, 16, 12). Often referred to as "Philip's Ass."

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ARCHIAS, governor of Thebes (fl. c. 4th cent. B. C.) on receiving a letter which he was desired to read instantly (it was to warn him of a conspiracy to murder him). The delay cost him his life. (Plutarch, Lives: Pelopidas, 10).

Εἷς οἰωνὸς ἄριστος ἀμύνεσθαι περὶ Πύρρου. (The best of omens is king Pyrrhus' cause). PYRRHUS (318-272 B.C.) in reply to a remark by Lysimachus, who regarded Pyrrhus' dream Sparta as a bad omen (Plutarch, Lives: Pyrrhus, xxix). Adapting Homer's line (Iliad, xii, 243):

as to

Εἷς οἰωνὸς ἄριστος, ἀμύνεσθαι περὶ Táτpηs. (The best of omens is our country's cause.-Lord Derby's Translation).

Εἶτα οὐκ ἀγαπᾷς ὅτι μετὰ Φωκίωνος ȧπоðvýσкeis; (Are you not content, then, to die in Phocion's company?)

PHOCION (C. 400-317 B.C.) to Thodippus, who was in prison and bewailing his fate, when he saw the hemlock being prepared. (Plutarch, Lives: Phocion, xxxvi).

Εἶτα γράμματα διδάσκεις "Ομηρον ἐπανορθοῦν ἱκανὸς ὤν ; οὐχὶ τοὺς véovs maideveis; (Do you, you who are able to correct Homer, teach children to read? Why do you not employ your time in instructing men?)

ALCIBIADES (450-404 B.C.)—to a schoolmaster who said he had a copy of Homer corrected by himself. (Plutarch, Lives: Alcibiades, vii).

Ἐκείνη ἐν ᾗ τῶν ἀδικουμένων οὐχ ἧττον οἱ μὴ ἀδικούμενοι προβάλλονται καὶ κολάζουσι τοὺς ἀδικοῦντας. (That in which those who are not wronged espouse the cause of those who are, and punish the wrong. doers).

SOLON (638-558 B.C.)-when asked what city he thought was the best modelled. (Plutarch, Lives: Solon, xviii).

Ελλυχνίων ὄξειν αὐτοῦ τὰ ἐνθυμήματα. (His impromptus smell of the lamp).

PYTHEAS (A. 4th cent. B.C.)—of Demosthenes' orations, ridiculing his habit of not making a speech without preparation. Demosthenes replied:

Οὐ ταὐτὰ γὰρ ἐμοὶ καὶ σοὶ, ὦ Πυθέα, ỏ λúxvosσúvode. (My lamp, Pytheas, sees very different work from yours). -Plutarch, Lives: Demosthenes, viii. Cf.:

Whence is thy learning? Hath thy toil O'er books consum'd the midnight oil? -John Gay, The Shepherd and the Philosopher.

Εμὲ δὲ αὐτὸν πρὸς πόσας ἀντιστήσεις ; (And for how many then do you reckon me?).

ANTIGONUS (d. 242 B.C.)—as he was about to begin a sea-fight off Andros, someone having said that the enemy's fleet was the more numerous. (Plutarch, Lives: Pelopidas, 2).

rather be the first man here than the second man in Rome). JULIUS CAESAR (100-44 B.C.)when crossing the Alps on his way to Spain. Plutarch, Lives: Caesar, xi). Cf.

Tel brille au second rang qui s'éclipse au premier. (One shines in the second rank who is outshone in the first).

Voltaire, La Henriade, Chant i. "Esnoav. (They have lived).

CICERO (106-43 B.C.) to the conspirators, who were waiting for the night, thinking that those who had been killed were still alive and might be rescued. He meant that they were alive no more, and so avoided a word of ill-omen, 'dead.' (Plutarch, Lives: Cicero, xxii). There is no Latin authority for the original word, 'vixerunt.'

Εἰ γάρ τι καλὸν ἔργον πεποίηκα, τοῦτό μου μνημεῖον ἔσται εἰ δὲ μηδὲν, οὐδ ̓ οἱ πάντες ἀνδριάντες. (If I have done any good work, that will keep my memory green; but, if not, all the statues in the world will not do it).

AGESILAUS (438-360 B.C.)--on his death-bed, desiring that no statue should be raised to him. (Plutarch, Apophthegmata: Agesilaus, 12). See ̓Εμοῦ δὲ ἐρωτᾶν βούλομαι μᾶλλον &c. Et

Ye βασιλεῖς ἔμελλον ἕξειν ȧvтaywvioтás. (Yes, if I were going to have kings for my opponents).

ALEXANDER THE GREAT, (356323 B.C.)-when asked whether he would contend in the foot-race at Olympia, for he was a remarkably swift runner. (Plutarch, Lives: Alexander, iv.)

Εἰ μὲν ὡς πρεσβευταὶ πολλοὶ πάρεισιν, εἰ δ ̓ ὡς στρατιῶται, Niyo. (If they have come as ambassadors, they are too many-if as soldiers, too few).

TIGRANES II (89-36 B.C.)— referring to Lucullus's army (Plutarch, Lives: Lucullus, xxvii).

Εἰ μὴ ̓Αλέξανδρος ἤμην, Διογένης ἂν hun. (If I were not Alexander I would be Diogenes). ALEXANDER THE GREAT (356323 B.C.)-to express his admiration of Diogenes, whom he visited at Corinth (Plutarch, Lives: Alexander, xiv). See Μικρὸν ἀπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου μετάστηθι.

. . εἰ χαλεπὸν οὕτως ἐστὶν, ὥστε μηδὲ ὄνον προσελθεῖν χρυσίον κομίζοντα. ([He asked] if it was so difficult that an ass laden with gold could not get in).

PHILIP OF MACEDON (382-336 B.C.) to his scouts who repeated that a stronghold he wished to capture was impregnable. (Plutarch Apophthegmata: Philip, 14). Ερρέθη γοῦν, ὅτι τὰς πόλεις αἱρεῖ τῶν ̔Ελλήνων οὐ Φίλιππος, ἀλλὰ τὸ Φιλίππου χρυσίον. (It was said that the cities of Greece were captured not by Philip, but by Philip's gold).

Cf. The advice given by the DELPHIC ORACLE to Philip (382-336 B.C.) "Arm yourself with arms of silver, and nothing shall resist you." One of Diogenianus' Proverbs (II, 81) is Αργυραῖς λόγχαις μάχου, καὶ πάντων Kрaтhoes. (Fight with sr silver, and thou wilt ov thy foes).

Cf. Fight thou with o'ercome When no force Herrick, Hec In eo neq pugnat, sed expugnari asellus (His w popul

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Εἰδέναι μὲν μηδὲν, πλὴν αὐτὸ τοῦτο,

εἰδέναι. (He knew nothing, excepting that he knew it [i.e., that he knew nothing]).

SOCRATES (B.c 468-399)-to the Delphic Oracle, which had told him that he was the wisest man in all Greece. (Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Socrates, § 32).

Εἰς αὔριον τὰ σπουδαῖα. (Business to-morrow).

ARCHIAS, governor of Thebes (fl. c. 4th cent. B. C.) on receiving a letter which he was desired to read instantly (it was to warn him of a conspiracy to murder him). The delay cost him his life. (Plutarch, Lives: Pelopidas, 10).

Εἷς οἰωνὸς ἄριστος ἀμύνεσθαι περὶ Πύρρου. (The best of omens is king Pyrrhue

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Εἶτα γράμματα διδάσκεις "Ομηρον ἐπανορθοῦν ἱκανὸς ὤν ; οὐχὶ τοὺς νέους παιδεύεις; (Do you, you who are able to correct Homer, teach children to read? Why do you not employ your time in instructing men?)

ALCIBIADES (450-404 B.C.)-to a schoolmaster who said he had a copy of Homer corrected by himself. (Plutarch, Lives: Alcibiades, vii).

Εκείνη ἐν ᾗ τῶν ἀδικουμένων οὐχ ἧττον οἱ μὴ ἀδικούμενοι προβάλλονται καὶ κολάζουσι τοὺς ἀδικοῦντας. (That in which those who are not wronged espouse the cause of those who are, and punish the wrongdoers).

SOLON (638-558 B.C.)-when asked what city he thought was the best modelled. (Plutarch, Lives: Solon, xviii).

Ελλυχνίων ὄξειν αὐτοῦ τὰ ἐνθυμήματα. (His impromptus smell of the lamp).

PYTHEAS (fl. 4th cent. B.C.)-of Demosthenes' orations, ridiculing his habit of not making a speech without preparation. Demosthenes replied:

Οὐ ταὐτὰ γὰρ ἐμοὶ καὶ σοὶ, ὦ Πυθέα, ó λúxvosoúvode. (My lamp, Pytheas, sees very different work from yours). Plutarch, Lives: Demosthenes, i. Cf.:

Whence is thy learning? Hath thy toil O'er books consum'd the midnight oil? -John Gay, The Shepherd and the Philosopher.

Ἐμὲ δὲ αὐτὸν πρὸς πόσας ἀντιστήσεις ; (And for how many then do you reckon me?).

ANTIGONUS (d. 242 B.C.)-as he was about to begin a sea-fight off Andros, someone having said that the enemy's fleet was the more numerous. (Plutarch, Lives: Pelopidas, 2).

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Εμὲ Δημοσθένης, ἡ ῢς τὴν ̓Αθηνῶν. (To compare Demosthenes with me is like comparing a sow with Minerva).

DEMADES (d. 318 B.C.) an opponent of Demosthenes.(Plutarch, Lives: Demosthenes, xi).

Ἐμοῦ δὲ ἐρωτῶν βούλομαι μᾶλλον τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, διὰ τί ἀνδριὰς οὐ κεῖται Κάτωνος ἢ διὰ τί κεῖται. I would much rather that men should ask why I have no statue than why I have one). CATO MAJOR (234-149 B.C.)— (Plutarch, Apophthegmata Catonis, 10; Lives: Cato Major, xix).

Ἐμοῦ μὲν, ὦ παῖ, τὴν σὴν μητέρα

γαμοῦντος οὐδὲ ὁ γείτων ᾔσθετο τοῖς δὲ σοῖς γάμοις καὶ βασιλεῖς καὶ δυνάσται συγχορηγοῦσιν. (My boy, when I married your mother not even our neighbours heard of it but kings and princes are contributing to your wedding).

DEMADES (d. 318 B.C.)-to his son Demeas, on the occasion of the latter's marriage.—(Plutarch, Lives: Phocion, xxx).

Ενταῦθά εἰσιν οἱ πολέμιοι. (Here

are the enemy!)

JULIUS CAESAR (100-44 B.C.)— to a man bearing the eagle and running away. Caesar seized him by the neck and turned him round saying as above.-(Plutarch, Lives: Caesar, lii).

Ἔοικεν, ὦ ἄνδρες, ὅτε Δαρεῖον ἡμεῖς

ἐνικῶμεν ἐνταῦθά, έκει τις ἐν Αρκαδία γεγονέναι μυομαχία. (It appears, my friends, that while we were conquering Darius here in Asia, there was a battle of mice across the seas in Arcadia.)

ALEXANDER THE GREAT (356323 B.C.)-referring to a battle

between Agis and Antipater (Plutarch, Lives: Agesilaus, xv). Εὕρηκα, εὕρηκα. (I have found it, I have found it).

ARCHIMEDES (287-212 B.C.)—on discovering the law of specific gravity. (Vitruvius Pollio, De Architectura, ix, 3). Generally quoted as 'Eureka,' or, more correctly, 'Heureka.'

Ἡ τῶν ἐμῶν λόγων κοπὶς πάρεστιν. (Here comes the pruning-knife of my periods).

DEMOSTHENES (385-322 B.C.)-— when Phocion rose to speak used to whisper to his friends as above. (Plutarch, Lives: Phocion, v). Ηράκλεις, ὡς ψυχρὸν ὑμῶν τὸ Balavelov. (By Hercules, how cold this bath of yours is !) JUGURTHA (154-104 B.C.)-when thrust naked into a dungeon, his clothes having been torn off him. (Plutarch, Lives: Marius, xii). Cf. also Sallust Jugurtha, ch. cxxii. and Longfellow, Jugurtha.

Θαρρεῖ· τοιοῦτον ἐστι τῆς ἀρετῆς τὸ χρῶμα. (Cheer up-that is the colour of virtue !)

DIOGENES (B.C. 412-323)—on seeing a young man blush. (Diogenes Laertius, Lives: Diogenes, § 54).

Ιθι, γενναῖε, τόλμα καὶ δέδιθι μηδὲν. Καίσαρα φέρεις καὶ τὴν Καίσαρος τύχην συμπλέουσαν. (Come, good sir, have courage and fear nothing you have Čaesar and Caesar's fortune on board with you).

JULIUS CAESAR (100-44 B.C.)-to the frightened pilot on board a vessel going from Dyrrachium to Brundisium. (Plutarch, Lives: Caesar, xxxviii). Cf.:

"Je réponds de la barque, en dépit de Neptune!

Songe donc qu'elle porte un poëte et sa fortune!

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