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remain equally harmless is a matter of doubt to me). Kommen Sie 'rein in die gute Stube! (Come into the

parlour !)

Said by a Leipzig lady to Prince Frederick Charles of Prussia, on the occasion of the Emperor William the First's visit to Leipzig in Sept., 1876 ['rein (abbrev. of herein) means hither,' rein means 'clean,' hence the faux pas].

Kommt es zum Aeussersten, so

ist mir das Hemd näher als der Rock. (In the last resort my shirt is nearer to me than my coat).

PRINCE BISMARCK (1815-98)—in the Prussian Chamber of Deputies, Jan 22, 1864. Cf

Tunica propior palliost. (My shirt is nearer than my cloak). Plautus, Trinummus, act v, sc. 2, 30. (Callicles); La chemise est plus proche que le pourpoint (The shirt is nearer than the doublet)French Proverb; Near is my kirtle, but nearer is my smock. -English Proverb. Kulturkampf. (War of civilization.)

PROF. VIRCHOW claims that this word, which has met with such wide adoption as describing the conflict between Church and State in Germany, was invented by him. Speech in Magdeburg, Oct. 16, 1876, referring to his Programm der Fortschrittspartei (1873), in which occurs the following passage:

Aber obwohl sie dabei nur zu oft unterlegen ist, so hat sie es doch als eine Notwendig. keit erkannt, im Verein mit den andern liberalen Parteien die Regierung in einem Kampfe zu unterstützen, der mit jedem Tage mehr den Charakter eines grossen Kulturkampfes der Menschheit annimmt. (But although it [the Progressive Party] is only too often defeated by it, yet it has recognized it as a necessity to support, in conjunction with the other liberal parties, the government in a conflict which daily assumes more the character of a great war of civilization).

Virchow, however, had been anticipated by FERDINAND LASSALE, the Socialist, who in an

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Die Katharsis, welche dieses Werk in jedem eines geistigen Eindrucks einigermassen fähigen Gemüt hinterlassen wird, ist die, es zu erheben über die Qualen und Konflikte, die ihm selber zustossen. Eines edlen, eines nur irgend wahrhaft bescheiden Gemüts wird sich eine edle Gleichgültigkeit bemächtigt gegen Alles, was uns selbst widerfahren kann in einem Kulturkampf, in welchem die Grössten und Besten langsam und qualvoll verblutet sind. (The catharsis which this work will leave behind it in every mind that is at all capable of a spiritual impression is to raise it above the torments and conflicts which befall it. A noble mind, a mind with a grain of true modesty in it, will be possessed by a noble indifference towards all that may happen to it in a war of civilization in which the greatest and the best are slowly and painfully bled to death). Landgraf werde hart! (Land

grave! grow hard!)

Saying of the smith of Ruhlaalluding to Ludwig der Eiserne, second Landgrave of Thuringia (1140-72). (Cf. John Rothe, Düringische Chronik, ed. by Liliencron, 1859, p. 292). At the beginning of his rule Ludwig had been so easygoing that the nobles had increased in insolence and oppressed the poor. On one occasion, he lost his way in the Thuringian forest, and met the smith of Ruhla, to whom he was unknown. The smith worked all night, and at each blow of the hammer grumbled at the Landgrave's lenient ways, addressing the iron on which he was working.. "Nun werde hart." (Now grow

hard!) This so impressed the Landgrave that he straightway restored order throughout the land. Lerne zu leiden ohne zu klagen. (Learn to suffer without complaining).

FRIEDRICH III (1831-88)-advice to his son, the present Emperor, at

the castle of Charlottenburg, April 1888. The full sentence was: "Lerne zu leiden, ohne zu klagen, das ist das einzige, was ich dich lehren kann." ("Learn to suffer without complaining, that is the only thing which I can teach you.") Cf.

O fear not in a world like this,

And thou shalt know ere long,
Know how sublime a thing it is
To suffer and be strong.

Longfellow, The Light of Stars, last verse. Licht mehr Licht! (Light! more light!)


GOETHE (1749-1832) - on death-bed. Generally considered his last words, but really uttered three days before his death. The words were uttered in a literal and not a figurative sense. Froude (in his Life of Carlyle, vol. ii p. 241) says that Mrs. Austin wrote to Carlyle (as he says in a letter to his brother, July 2, 1832) that Goethe's last words were:

J. A.

"Macht die Fensterladen auf, damit ich mehr Licht bekomme." ("Open the shutters, that I may have more light.")

Variants are: "Macht doch den zweiten Fensterladen auch auf, damit mehr Licht hereinkomme." ("Pray open the second shutter so that more light may come in.") "Macht doch den Fensterladen im Schlafgemach auf, damit mehr Licht herein. komme,' ("Open the shutters in the bedroom so that more light may come in.") Liebe, gute! (Dear, good one!) SCHILLER (1759-1805) Last words. (Düntzer, Life of Schiller). Carlyle (Life of Schiller, pt. 3, People's Edn. p. 166) gives his last words as: "Many things


growing plain and clear to me!" following his words, "calmer and calmer" when asked how he was feeling.

Lieber ein Ende mit Schrecken,

als ein Schrecken ohne Ende! (Rather an end with terror, than terror without an end).

SCHILL-in the market-place of

Arneburg (on the Elbe), May 12, 1809, to the enthusiastic crowd who followed him from Berlin. Cf. βέλτιον θανεῖν ἅπαξ ἢ διὰ βίον τρομέ ειν. (Better to die once for all than to spend your life in trembling). Macht geht von Recht. (Might before right).

Attributed by Count von Schwerin (Mar. 13, 1863) to PRINCE BISMARCK (1815-98) in his speech in the Chamber of Deputies, Jan. 23, 1863, but denied by Bismarck the same day (see Discours de M. le Comte de Bismarck, vol. i, p. 26). Also in 1869, 1870 and 1871. Cf. the French proverb:


passe droit. (Might overcometh

right). Φημὶ γὰρ ἐγὼ εἶναι τὸ δίκαιον οὐκ ἄλλο τι ἢ τὸ τοῦ κρείττονος ξυμφέρον.

("I proclaim that might is right, justice the interest of the stronger." " Jowett).

PLATO, Republic, I., 12 (Thrasymachus.) La raison du plus fort est toujours la meilleure. (The reason of the stronger is always the best). La Fontaine, le Loup etlAgneau.

"O, that right should thus overcome might!"

Shakspere, 2 Henry IV, act V. SC. 4. (Hostess Quickly),

Man kann nur aus nationalen Gründen Krieg fuhren. (War can be conducted only on national grounds).

PRINCE BISMARCK (1815-98)-in the North German Reichstag, April 22, 1869.

Meine Wiege stand am Web(My

stuhl meines Vaters.

cradle stood on my father's


DEPUTY HERMANN VON BECKERATH (1801-70)-June 5, 1847, (Der erste Preuss. Landt. in Berlin, 1847, p. 1387.)

Meine Zeit in Unruhe, meine Hoffnung in Gott! (My time in trouble, my hope in God).


III (1797-1840). Previously of Elizabeth, Margravine of Brandenburg (d. 1578), and Catherine Electress of Brandenburg (d. 1602). Mir ist sehr schlecht. (I feel very ill.)

RICHARD WILHELM WAGNER (1813-83)-Last words.

Mit Gott für König und Vaterland. (With God for King and Fatherland.)

FRIEDRICH WILHELM III (17701840) from Beilage 3, sec. 5 of an order dated Mar. 17, 1813, concerning the organization of the militia. All the men had white tin crosses, with the above inscription, fastened in front of their caps. Mit juristischen Theorien lässt

sich auswartige Politik nicht treiben. (Foreign potitics cannot be run for legal theories.) PRINCE BISMARCK (1815-98)—in the Reichstag, Dec. 3, 1875.) See Juristische Zwirnsfaden. Mögen die Federn der Diplo

maten nicht wieder verderben, was das Volk mit so grossen Anstrengungen errungen! (May the diplo matists' pen not again spoil what the people won with such great efforts.)

BLÖCHER (1742-1819)—toast at Waterloo, June 18, 1815. Alluded to by von Treitschke (Hans von Gagern, 1861, in Hist. und polit. Aufs., 4th ed., 1871, vol. I, p. 171): "Man kennt Blüchers Toast nach Waterloo, etc." ("One knows Blücher's toast at Waterloo.")

moralische Eroberungen (.. moral conquests) Nationalzeitung, Nov. 25, 1858, evening edn.).

EMPEROR WILHELM, when Prince Regent of Prussia (17971888)-to his first ministry of Hohenzollern-Auerswald, Nov. 8,

1858. The full sentence is: In Deutschland muss Preussen moralische Eroberungen machen durch die Weisheit seiner eignen Gesetsgebung und durch die Ergreifung von Einigungselementen, wie z. B. den Zollverein. (In Germany, Prussia must make moral conquests through the wisdom of its own legislation and by the adoption of measures which make for unity, such as, for example, the Zollverein). Similarly to a Deputation from Hanover, Aug. 30, 1866.

Nach Canossa gehen wir nicht (We shall not go to Canossa). PRINCE BISMARCK (1815-98)—in the Reichstag, May 14, 1872, meaning that they would not yield to the clerical party. An allusion to the penance of Henry IV, Emperor of Germany, at the Castle of Canossa (Italy), 1077. During the famous struggle (See Kulturkampf) the relations between the German government and the Vatican became somewhat strained.

Passiver Widerstand. (Passive resistance).

VON UNRUH, President of the National Assembly, Nov. 10, 1848, at Berlin, when the national guard and the guilds of Berlin offered armed protection to the National Assembly. "Ich werde entschieden der Meinung dass hier nur passiver Widerstand geleistet werden könne." ("I am decidedly of opinion that only passive resistance should be rendered in this case.") Politik von Fall zu Fall. (Policy from case to case, i.e., as new issues arise).

COUNT ANDRASSY (1823-90)— explaining to the Delegates that the Powers had at the Berlin Congress of 1878 decided to mutually determine their Eastern policy as each new issue arose.

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Brunnenvergiftung bei den Wahlen. (Political well-poisoning at Elections.) PRINCE BISMARCK (1815-98)— in the Reichstag, Jan. 24, 1882. Cf.:

Solche Skribenten schaden so viel, als wann sie die öffentlichen Brunnen vergiffteten (Such scribblers do as much harm as if they were to poison the public wells) Harsdörfer, Gesprächspiele (1643) iv, 120. Preussen geht fortan in Deutsch

land auf. (Henceforth Prussia will rise in Germany.)

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FREIDRICH WILHELM IV (17951861) in the proclamation "An mein Volk, an die deutsche Nation,' (To my people, to the German Nation), Mar. 21, 1848.

.. reine Wäsche . . (clean washing).

PRINCE BISMARCK (1815-98)—in the Reichstag, Dec. 4, 1874. "Wir haben in unsern auswärtigen Beziehungen recht reine Wäsche." (In our foreign relations our washing is perfectly clean.) Reptilienfonds. (Reptile funds, referring to Secret-Service money). PRINCE BISMARCK (1815-98)-in an answer to the president of the Reichstag, Jan. 30, 1869. In a speech in the Reichstag, February, 9, 1876, he said, "Ich nannte Reptile die Leute, die im Verborgenen gegen unsere Politik, gegen die Politik des Staates intriguieren. (I called reptiles those people who secretly intrigue against our politics, against the politics of the State).

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Revolutionäre in Schlafrock und

Pantoffeln. (Revolutionists in dressing-gown and slippers). FREIHERR VON MANTEUFFEL, Foreign Minister of Prussia, (180582) in the Prussian Senate, Jan. 8, 1851. Börne (Briefe aus Paris, 56, Nov. 4, 1831) called Salvandy one of those easy-going Carlists who waited the return of Heinrich V in dressing-gown and slippers.

Ruhe ist die erste Bürgerpflicht.

(Quiet is the first duty of a citizen).

In a placard dated Oct. 17, 1806, posted in Berlin by Count von Schulenberg-Kehnert, the Monday after the battle of Jena. A copy is in the Märkisches ProvinzialMuseum zu Berlin.

. . rühmlichst abwesend. (.. most honourably absent).

GEO. WILHELM VON RAUMER, Director of the Prussian Archives, a member of the Council of State (1781-1873)—in the official notice (cf. Varnhagen's Tagebücher, III, 18th. & 22nd. Apr. 1846) with reference to the absence of Prince Waldemar of Prussia, who, because he was in the East Indies, could not attend the funeral of his mother on Apr. 18, 1846.

Sehe er hier, mit solchem Gesin

del muss ich mich herumschlagen. (Just look here, it is with such a mob that I have to fight !)

FREDERICK THE GREAT (171286)-to the garde-major of Wedell, before the battle of Zorndorf (Aug. 25, 1758), when the first ragged Cossacks were brought before him as prisoners of war. (Archenholz, Geschichte d. siebenjähr Krieges, vol. i, p. 168).

Setzen wir Deutschland, so zu sagen, in den Sattel! Reiten wird es schon können. (Put

Germany, so to speak, in the saddle, and you will find that she can ride).

PRINCE BISMARCK (1815-98)— concluding words of a speech in the Reichstag, March 11, 1867.

.. sich rückwärts zu concentrieren. (.. to concentrate oneself backwards).

GYULAI, seeing that his only chance of safety lay in a hasty passage of the Tessin, gave this order, after the battle of Palestro (1859). It has since become proverbial.

..skrophulöses Gesindel! (Scrofulous mob!) HEINRICH LEO (1799-1878) (Volksblatt für Stadt und Land, 1853, no. 61.) "Gott erlöse uns von der europäischen Völkerfäulnis und schenke uns einen frischen, fröhlichen Europa Krieg, der durchtobt, die Bevölkerung sichtet und das skrophulöse Gesindel zertritt, was jetzt den Raum zu eng macht, um noch ein ordentliches Menschenleben in der Stickluft führen zu können. (May God rescue us from the corruption of Europe, and grant us a fresh, joyous war, which shall rage through Europe, winnow the population, and crush out the scrofulous mob which now makes space too narrow for us to lead a decent human life in the stuffy atmosphere.") Volksblatt für Stadt und Land, 1859, no. 35. See

ein frischer fröhlicher Krieg. So fluscht et bater; or Dat fluscht bäter. (Now it goes better !) The Pommeranian militia shouted the above at the battle of Grossbeeren, Aug. 23, 1813, turning their rifles round to use the butt-ends since the rain had moistened the powder.

So lange ich lebe, wird es einen

Royalisten und einen sichern
Diener des Kaisers geben.

(So long as I live the Emperor will have a loyal and a true servant).

PRINCE BISMARCK (1815-98)—in the Reichstag, Nov. 29, 1881.

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Steine in den Garten des
Reiches werfen. (.. to throw
stones into the garden of the

PRINCE BISMARCK (1815-98)—in the Reichstag, Jan. 15, 1889. Unsere Politik ist, dass kein Fuss

breit deutscher Erde verloren gehen solle, und dass ebenso kein Titel deutschen Rechts geopfert werden solle. (Our politics are that no foot of German soil shall be lost, and that no item of German rights shall be sacrificed).

PRINCE BISMARCK (1815-98)-in the Prussian Chamber of Deputies, Dec. 18, 1863.

Unvorbereitet wie ich bin... (Unprepared as I am MATTHIAS

.) Consulting Architect his toast at a dinner in Halle on the completion of the new University Buildings, 1834. Cf. Unaccustomed as I am &c. Verfassungsleben eine Reihe von Kompromissen. (Governmental life [is] a series of compromises).

PRINCE BISMARCK (1815-98)—in the Prussian Chamber of Deputies, Jan. 27, 1863. Preceded by "Ein konstitutioneller erfahrener Staatsmann hat gesagt, dass das ganze. (A constitutional Statesman of experience has said that all..)." Also in the Prussian Senate, Jan. 24, 1865, and Dec. 22, 1866. See Die Basis des konstitutionellen &c. .. Volk in Waffen. (.. nation under arms).

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KAUNITZ-to Joseph II. (174190). Ein ganzes Volk in Waffen ist an Majestät dem Kaiser ebenbürtig." (A whole nation under

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