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of honour!" and "Premier Grenadier de France."

Mort aux tyrans, paix aux chaumines. (Death to the tyrants, peace to the cottages.) Oath taken by the Jacobins (Jan. 21, 1794), on the anniversary of LOUIS XVI'S (1754-93) death, at the foot of the statue of Liberty, place de la Révolution. See Guerre aux châteaux &c.

Morte la bête, mort le venin !

(Lit. The animal dead, the venom dead. Dead folks cannot bite.)

Proverb repeated by HENRI III (1551-89), after the murder of the duc de Guise (1550-88). The king's mother, Catherine de Médecis, in bed with the gout, asked the meaning of the noise caused by the murder (it took place underneath her chamber) and the king, entering the room, said: "Madame, ce matin je me suis rendu roi de France; j'ai fait mourir le roi de Paris!" (Madam, this morning I have become king of France; I have caused the death of the king of Paris!) Catherine, stupefied, replied: "Vous avez fait "mourir le duc de Guise! Dieu "veuille que cette mort ne soit point 66 cause que vous soyez roi de rien ! "C'est bien coupé, mais saurez-vous "recoudre ?" (You have caused the death of the duc de Guise! ·God grant that this death may not be the cause of your being the king of nothing! It is well cut, but will you know how to sew it up again. See Il n'oserait !

Mort ou victorieux. (Dead or

victorious).

GENERAL A. DUCROT (1817-82) addressed a proclamation to the soldiers during the siege of Paris, in which he said, "je ne rentrerai dans Paris que mort ou victorieux." (I

will only re-enter Paris dead or victorious).

Moulin à paroles. (Windbag.)

Attributed to MME. CORNUEL (1605-94) applying the term to the COMTE DE FIESQUE. Tallemant des Réaux, Historiettes, vol. 9. p. 54 (1840).

Napoléon! Ella! Marie-Louise!

Last words of MARIE-JOSEPHINERose Tascher de la Pagerie (17631814), wife of Napoleon I, referring to Napoleon's second wife, Josephine having been divorced by him. Nation boutiquière. (Shop-keeping nation.)

BARÈRE DE VIEUZAC (1755-1841) -in a speech to the Convention (28 prairial) June 16, 1794, in defence of the Committee of Safety, but usually attributed to Napoleon. So far the editor has been unable to trace any report in French of the speech in question. The earliest record of the phrase seems to be that in "The Register of the Times" (pub. 1794) p. 72, which is as follows:

Report of the arrival of the "French convoy from America and "the engagement of the 1st. of June." "28 Prairial, Monday, June 16th,

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1794. Let Pitt then boast of this "victory [Lord Howe's victory of "Ist June] to his nation of shop"keepers (nation boutiquière)." In a speech by Barère de Vieuzac (7 prairial) 26th May 1794, occur the words: "Nation bretonne, agio

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teuse et marchande, fière de ton "grand commerce," etc. (Speculating and trading British nation, proud of thy great commerce, etc.). Cf. "You were all greatly offended "with me [Napoleon I] for having "called you a nation of shop-keepers "... I meant that you were a nation "of merchants, and that all your "great riches, and your grand re

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'may at first sight appear a project "fit only for a nation of shopkeepers. "It is, however, a project altogether "unfit for a nation of shopkeepers; "but extremely fit for a nation "whose government is influenced "by shopkeepers."-Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, bk. 4, ch. 7, pt. 3.

Note. In the 1776 edition, vol. 2, p. 221, the concluding words of the above are "a nation that is governed by shopkeepers."

A note (p. 62 of vol. 1) in Notes from a Dairy, by Sir M. E. Grant Duff, refers to "La Nation Boutiquière and other poems (by Henry Lushington, 1855) as a "but little known but most brilliant book."

N'aurez vous pas l'éternité entière pour vous reposer? (Will you not have all eternity in in which to rest?)

ANTOINE ARNAULD (1612-94) to PIERRE NICOLE (1625-95), the latter saying that he wanted rest. Also quoted as "N'avez-vous pas pour vous reposer l'éternité entière? Another account says that Arnauld's remark referred to himself and that Nicole advised him (Arnauld) to rest from his labours. Arnauld replied, "Me reposer ! eh! n'avons

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nous pas pour cela l'éternité ?" (Rest! haven't we eternity for that, eh?)

N'avouez jamais!

fess!)

(Never con

The assassin AVINAIN (otherwise Davinain), an ex-butcher, executed at Paris, Nov. 29th, 1867, when on the scaffold, said to the public, "Messieurs, n'avouez jamais! (Gentlemen, never confess !)-Le Droit, Nov. 29th, 1867

N'ayez pas de zèle. (Don't be zealous).

Attributed to Talleyrand (17541838) by Sainte-Beuve (Critiques et portraits, vol. 3, p. 324). Often quoted as "Surtout, pas de zèle !" (Above all, no zeal !) or, "Surtout, messieurs, point de zèle." (Aboveall, gentleman, no zeal!) "Au bas "d'une des lettres de Chesterfield, 66 on trouve ce conseil donné à un "résident, son ami intime: Pas "de vivacité-Temper!' C'est le "mot de M. de Talleyrand à ses "élèves: Surtout pas de zèle!" (At the foot of one of Lord Chesterfield's letters we find this advicegiven to a resident, his intimate friend: "No vivacity-Temper!" It is Talleyrand's mot to his pupils: Above all no zeal!)-Revue des deux Mondes. Dec. 15, 1845, p. 919. Cf. Μισεῖ γὰρ ὁ θεὸς τὰς ἂγαν προθυμίας.” God hateth overzeal."-EURIPIDES. Orestes, 708. -(Menelaus.)

N'écoutez ni le Père de Tourne

mine ni moi, parlant l'un de l'autre, car nous avons cessé d'être amis. (Don't listen either to father Tournemine or me, speaking of each other, for we have ceased to be friends.) MONTESQUIEU (1689-1755)— after he had quarrelled with father TOURNEMINE (1661-1739).

Ne me manquez pas! (Don't miss me!)

Last words of CH. H. COMTE DE LA BEDOYÈRE (1786-1815), condemned and shot, Aug, 19, 1815, Derniers pointing to his breast. momens, &c., 1818, p. 270. See Surtout ne me manquez pas.

Ne parlons jamais de l'étranger, mais que l'on comprenne que nous y pensons toujours. (Let us never speak of the

foreigner, but let it be understood that we are always thinking of him.)

LÉON GAMBETTA (1838-81)-in a speech at a banquet at SaintQuentin, Nov. 16, 1871. La République francaise, Nov. 18, 1871,

P. I.

Ne pouvant s'élever jusqu'à moi,

ils m'ont fait descendre jusqu'à eux. (Not being able to raise themselves to my level, they have made me descend to theirs).

Inscription found attached to the statue of Napoleon, which had been removed from the top of the Vendome column at the period of the First Revolution (in 1814).

Ne soyez pas surpris si j'ai récompensé si tard votre mérite; j'appréhendais d'être privé du plaisir de vous entendre, si je vous faisais évêque. (Don't be surprised that I have rewarded your merit so tardily; I was afraid of being deprived of the pleasure of hearing you, if I made you a bishop.)

LOUIS XIV (1638-1715) to E. FLÉCHIER (1632-1710) made bishop of Lavaur in 1685. See Madame, je vous ai fait attendre &c.

Ne vous avais-je pas bien dit que

vous n'êtes qu'une poule mouillée, et qu'avec un peu de fermeté vous retabliriez vos affaires? (Didn't I tell you how irresolute you are, and that with a little firmness you would re-establish your affairs?) PERE JOSEPH (1577-1638) to RICHELIEU (1585-1642)-after energetic measures had been adopted for the defence of the Capital.

Ne vous pressez pas; on ne saurait marcher bien vite, quand on est aussi chargé de lauriers que vous l'êtes. (Don't hurry; it is impossible to walk very quickly, loaded with laurels as you are.)— Voltaire.

LOUIS XIV (1638-1715) to the PRINCE DE CONDE (1621-86) after the victory of Senef (Aug. 11, 1674). The prince suffering from gout, asked the king to excuse him for keeping him waiting on the stair

case.

Ni un pouce de notre territoire, ni une pierre de nos forteresses. (Neither an inch of our territory nor a stone of our fortresses.)

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Words occurring in a circular by JULES FAVRE (1809-80) to the French diplomatic agents, dated Sep. 6, 1870. Nous ne cèderons ni un pouce," &c. (We will neither yield an inch, &c). Journal Officiel, Sep. 7, 1870.

Nos fusils Chassepot ont fait merveille. (Our Chassepot guns have done wonders.)

In a despatch dated Nov. 9, 1867 from GENERAL P. L. C. A. DE FAILLY (1810-92) referring to the victory over Garibaldi's army at Mentana (Nov. 3, 1867). Le Moniteur universel, Nov. 10, 1867. Nous dansons sur un volcan.

(We are dancing on a volcano.) Remark made by M. DE SALVANDY (1795-1856) to the Duke of Orleans (1773-1850) afterwards LOUIS-PHILIPPE (May 31, 1830) at a ball given at the PalaisRoyal. "C'est une fête toute napolitaine, monseigneur ; nous dansons," &c. (It is quite a Neapolitan fête, my lord; we are dancing, &c.) Guizot, Mémoires

pour servir à l'histoire de mon temps, vol. 2. p. 13. Also Salvandy, Livre des cent et un, vol. I. p. 398. Cf. NAPOLEON'S (1769-1821) saying: "Vous êtes sur un volcan.' (You are walking over a volcano.) Thibaudeau, Le Consulat et l'Empire vol 1, p. 42. The Emperor Nicholas is reported to have said to Sir Hamilton Seymour "You may speak of the throne in England as being safe, but I, you know, sit upon volcano." -Sir M. E. Grant Duff's Notes from a diary, vol. I, p. 272.

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Nous l'acceptons le cœur léger (We accept it [the responsibility] with light hearts.

Phrase used by M. EMILE OLLIVIER (1825) keeper of the seals, July 15, 1870, à propos of the declaration of war between France and Germany. Journal Officiel, July 16, 1870.

Nous n'avons pas de marine.-Et celles de Vernet, Monsieur ? (We have no navy. - And Vernet's, sir?)

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The painter LA TOUR (1704-88) is said to have remarked to LOUIS XV (1710-74) "We have navy"; and the king replied as above, making the word "marine" mean marine subjects. (And what about those of Vernet, sir?)

According to the Abecedario, published by de Chenevière and de Montaiglon (article La Tour), the king made no reply.

Nous ne serions pas grands sans les petits; nous ne devons l'être que pour eux. (We should not be great without the little; we ought only to be so for them).

Saying of MARIE LECZINSKA

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The above was the motto of the Révolutions de Paris, the first No. of which is dated July 12, 1789. Composed by E.-A. de Loustalot (1762-90) its principal editor. L. Prud'homme (1752-1803) was the directeur-propriétaire. Fournier (L'Esprit dans l'Histoire, p. 376) quotes it thus :-"Les grands ne "sont grands que parce que nous "sommes à genoux; relevons-nous." Cf. also Dubosc Montandré, Le Point de l'Ovale (Moreau, Bibliographie des Mazarinades, vol. 2, p. 359): "Voyons que les grands ne

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sont grands que parce que nous 'les portons sur nos épaules. Nous "n'avons qu'à les secouer pour en "joncher la terre." (Let us see that the great are only great because we carry them on our shoulders. We have only to shake them to strew the ground with them).

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toriettes, 1840, vol. 3, p. 104, also Pironiana (Avignon, 1813) p. 99. Nous périrons ensemble ou nous sauverons l'Étac. (We will perish together or we will save the state).

Said by LOUIS XIV (1638-1715) in 1709 to VILLARS (1653-1734) after the battle of Malplaquet.

Nous sommes archiprêts; il ne

manque pas un bouton de guêtre. (We are more than ready; there is not a gaiter button wanting).

Phrase attributed to MARSHAL LE BOEUF (1809-88) minister of war, alluding to the Franco-German war. G. Du Barrai Mes souvenirs, 1896, vol. 3, p. 148.

Nous sommes assemblés par la

volonté nationale, nous ne (or n'en) sortirons que par la force. (We are assembled by the national will, we will only disperse by force).

Said to have been uttered in a speech by MIRABEAU (1749-91) to the Constituent Assembly (June 23, 1789). Ephémérides de Noël, 1803. The popular version is.-"Allez dire "à votre maître que nous sommes "ici par la volonté du peuple, et "que nous n'en sortirons que par la "force des baïonnettes." (Go, tell your master that we are here by the will of the people and that the bayonet's point alone will make us leave) Carlyle's version (Essays, vol. v, p. 266-Mirabeau) is: "Go, Monsieur, tell those who sent you, that we are here by will of the Nation; and that nothing but the force of bayonets can drive us hence!" (said to de DreuxBrezé.) Cependant, pour éviter "toute équivoque et tout délai, je 66 vous déclare que si l'on vous a "chargé de nous faire sortir d'ici,

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vous devez demander des ordres pou employer la force; car nous

ne quitterons nos places que par "la puissance des baïonnettes." (However, to avoid any misunderstanding and any delay, I declare to you that if you have been commanded to turn us out from here, you must ask for orders to use force; for we shal! only leave our place if compelled by bayonets.) Le Moniteur June 20-24, 1789, p. 48, col. I. The President of the Assembly's (J.-S. Bailly, 1736-93) version however is :

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"Allez dire à eux qui vous envoient, que la force des baionnettes ne peut rien contre la volonté de la "nation." (Go and tell those who sent you that the bayonets' force is of no avail against the will of the nation).

Nouvelle couche sociale. (New social stratum).

Expression used by L. GAMBETTA (1838-81) in a specch at Grenoble, Sep. 26, 1872. La République française, Oct. 2, 1872, p. I.

Oh! c'était le bon temps, j'étais bien malheureuse! (Oh! those were good times, I was so unhappy!)

By SOPHIE ARNOULD (abt. 17401803).

Quoted by Rulhière (1735-91) in an epistle (à Monsieur de Chaetc.) following his poem Les jeux de mains (1808, p. 43).

"Un jour une actrice fameuse, "Me contait les fureurs de son premier amant;

"Moitié rêvant, moitié rieuse, "Elle ajouta ce mot charmant : "Oh! c'était le bon temps, j'étais bien malheureuse!"

(One day a famous actress, was telling me of her first lover's jealousy, Half dreaming, half laughing, she added this charming mot, etc.)

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