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but refuse to concur with the nation in general, to the defence of our country, shall incur and suffer the punishment of death; and the same punishment shall await all those who shall furnish any succour or aid to the enemy, by supplying them with provisions, or assisting them in any other mode.

not defend itself against the assailants of the kingdom, but permit their entrance without making every possible resistance, shall be burnt and levelled with the ground. And we hereby order all generals, mili

gen. of police, and all corregidors, auditors and in general all officers military and civil to aid and assist in carrying into effect the provisions of this royal decree, which shall be affixed up in all the public places, all the cities, towns, and villages of this kingdom, in order that it may be known to every inhabitant.-Approved by the council of war, who will cause it to be executed.

AMERICA AND FRANCE.- -Letter from Gen.
Armstrong to Mr. Madison; dated, Paris,
7 Aug. 1808, enclosing a Letter to Mr.

rights acknowledged in the world, aims at enslaving a country, plundering its property, destroying its religion, violating its temples, and committing the greatest atrocities that the perversity of manners and inhumanity can imagine. Portugal, unfortunately, is threatened with all these evils, and its inhabitants have no means to avoid-In like manner, any village which shall the horrors to which they are exposed, but by having recourse to arms to repel by force the odious and wicked designs of their enemies.—We have therefore resolved, that the whole Portuguese nation shall be armed in the manner which to each inha-tary governors of provinces, the intendantbitant may be practicable, that all the males, without exception of person or class, shall provide themselves with a pike, 12 or 13 palms, (6 or 7 feet) in length, and such other arms as their circumstances may permit. That all the cities, towns, and considerable villages, shall be fortified by blockading the entrances and principal streets with two, three, or more crossbeams, in order that all the inhabitants may be enabled to defend themselves vigorously when the enemy shall present himself. That all the officers in Lisbon, and administrators of districts, shall within the space of eight days from the date of this decree, deliver in to the military governor IT would have given me the highest general of their respective provinces, a list pleasure to have drawn from this governof such persons as from their activity, abi- ment, such explanations on the general lity, good conduct, and the respect they subject of our differences with them, as are held in by the people, are qualified to would have met the friendly and equitable take a command, always preferring in si- views of the United States, but I owe it as milar circumstances, those who are alrea- well to you as to myself, to declare, that dy military officers, and pointing out such every attempt for that purpose hitherto of the said officers as by their age, incum-made, has failed, and under circumstances, brances, or other circumstances, ought no which by no means indicate any change, longer to fill the posts they occupy. That in this respect for the better. all the generals charged with the military government of provinces, shall divide their governments into districts, and appoint an officer of known activity and probity, whether of the troops of the line or militia, whom the chief and other officers shall obey in consequence of the said appointment, who shall visit the different villages of their district, examine the state of the several companies, and from the persons recommended to them, appoint such for officers as they shall judge deserving and capable, who shall immediately begin to exercise their companies, which shall assemble on all Sundays and saints days in their respective districts, in order to render themselves expert in the use of the arms they have, and in military evolutions: comprehending all the males from fifteen to sixty-Lastly, we have resolved, that every person who shall not take up arms,

The Same to the Same.

I wrote a few lines to you yesterday. Two weeks have gone by without any new condemnation. My remonstrances continue to remain unanswered.I enclose a copy of my note of yesterday to M. De Champagny.

From Mr. Armstrong to Mons. Champagny.

MR. ARMSTRONG presents his compliments to M. De Champagny, and begs leave to inform him, that having, for some months past, made trial of the artificial waters of Tivoli without any useful effect, his physician has prescribed for him those of Bourbon D'Archambault. Should M. De Champagny have any communications to make to Mr. Armstrong, he will be pleased to address them, as usual, to the Hotel de Legation Americaine, rue Vanguard, 100, whence they will be regularly and promptly transmitted to Bourbon.- -On leaving

sumed, that the United States would no longer hesitate about becoming a party in the war against England.--Thus, in either case, the interests of his Majesty would be directly advanced by the measure in the one, the wants of France and her Colonies would be not only regularly supplied, but she would herself become an entrepot for the supply of the Continent : in the other, the wishes of his Majesty, as expressed in February last, would be directly promoted.

Paris, Mr. Armstrong thinks proper to state his regret, that the political relations of the two powers should continue to wear an aspect less auspicious to their future good understanding, than is wished for by those who are the friends of both.-That his majesty, (Napoleon), has a right to make such municipal regulations as he may deem proper, with regard to foreign commerce, neither is nor has been denied. For example, he may forbid the entry into the ports of France of American ships which have touched in England, or been destined to England; and he may either sequester RUSSIA AND SWEDEN.Convention beor confiscate such vessels of the United tween the Russian Army and that of Sweden States as shall infract these laws, after due in Finland, dated, 18th Nov. 1808. promulgation and notice thereof; but be- By virtue of the powers vested in us, we, yond this, the United States hope and be- the undersigned, have agreed and stipulated lieve that his majesty will not go.-M. the following Articles :--ART. I. The royal De Champagny will not fail to seize the Swedish army is, immediately after the distinction which these remarks present, ratification of this convention, to take up between the authority of municipal regu- a position along the frontier of the district lations and that of public law, and will of Uleaborg from Kemi to Peckawara. decide whether it does or does not offer a Kemi consequently remains in the hands ground on which a good understanding so of the Russians.-II. The Swedish army long and so usefully maintained between is to evacuate the town of Uleaborg within the United States and France, may be pre- ten days next ensuing the date of this; served, and a degree of intercourse revived the Russian troops are to take possession between, which shall have the effect of of the said town on the 30th of Nov. The reanimating their former industry. other parts of the country, which are to be Does his Majesty fear that the balance of given up to the Russians, shall be evatrade arising from this renewed industry, cuated according to the agreement yet to would go to the advantage of England? be concluded between the contracting par Means are certainly not wanting to pre- ties.-III. The rear of the Swedish army vent this consequence. Would it not be shall return by the route agreed upon, and entirely avoided by making it a condition whatever cannot be removed by the Sweof the commerce in question, that all ships dish troops in their retreat, shall be consileaving France shall take (in some article dered as good and lawful prize.―IV. The or articles of her manufacture) the full a- Swedish army binds itself neither to demount of the cargo they bring hither.- stroy, distribute among the inhabitants, Ships sailing under this regulation would nor sell, the magazines which they shall or would not go voluntarily to England. If be necessitated to surrender.-V. The Swethey went voluntarily, it would only be dish troops are not to take with them from because that country afforded the best mar-Uleaborg or other places to be surrendered, kets for the production of France, in which case, the habitual results would be entirely 'changed, and England ceasing to receive a balance for her manufactures, would begin to pay one to the United States, on the productions of France. Could France wish a state of commerce more prosperous than this?—If, on the other hand, the American ships did not go voluntarily to England, but were captured and sent in for adjudication, it may be fairly pre

any civil officers, nor any articles or goods belonging to the provinces.-VI. The Swedish army to send back all clergymen, civil officers, and inhabitants of the places evacuated by their troops, provided it be done by the desire, or with the consent of the said persons.-VII. This Convention shall be ratified by the respective generals in chief of both Armies, and the ratification exchanged to-morrow night.

LONDON: Printed by T. C. HANSARD, Peterborough Court, Fleet Street; Published by R. BAGSHAW, Brydges-Street, Covent-Garden: Sold also by J. BUDD, Pall-Mall.


[Price 10d.

"The Right Honble. Secretary then congratulated the House upon the temper with which the Campaign " in that House had commenced."-Report of Mr. Canning's Speech, 19, Jan. 1809.



truths! How many bodies are now left to fertilize the soil of Joseph Buonaparte's kingdom, who, if my advice had been taken, would have been living for their country's defence!If to the just anger and indignation of the people of this country, who have seen their means so wasted, their character so tarnished, their name become such a reproach amongst nations;

SUMMARY OF POLITICS. SPANISH REVOLUTION.- -The dismal news is, at last, arrived. The truth of the abused Bulletins is, at last, established to its utmost latitude. The pledge of throwing the English into the sea is, almost to the literal meaning, fulfilled. All the falshoods of all the hired writers are, at last, completely exposed.My readers, at any rate, have, from the first, been pre-if, to this anger and indignation, any addipared for what has happened. That is now come to pass; all those truths are now apparent, which, if they had been acted upon by our ministers, would have prevented those calamities, which have now plunged the nation, the buoyed up and cheated nation, into mourning; and, for the publishing of which truths, the hirelings of the day charged me with being" instigated by the devil."For my own part, I, who, free from the buz of report and from the influence of other men's opinions, had taken a calm view of the Spanish nation as it was previous to the revolution; who had followed the known events of that revolution with an impartial eye; and who have never suffered myself to be carried away by any statements, not well-authenticated: I could never see the smallest chance of beating Napoleon in Spain, unless the people were let loose; unless the country were thrown into a complete state of revolution; unless all the bands of despotism were burst in sunder. From the moment that the health of "His most Catholic Majesty, Ferdinand VII." was toasted, at the London Tavern, by our Secretary of State for foreign affairs; from that moment, I clearly saw, and as clearly said, that the war was to be carried on for the interests of a faction. From that moment, I said, that the people would not stir; that they would be cooled by the hands of those to whom they and indifferent spectators of the contest, and that our army, if one should be sent thither, would be very lucky not to find enemies in those, in whom they would be taught to expect the warmest of friends. How many men, how many of our unfortunate countrymen, have, since that day, had the woeful conviction of these timely

tion could be made, it would, assuredly, be found in the flippancy, the jocularity, the gaiety, of the publications, which have been made in the Courier and the Morning Post news-papers, under the title of Speeches made by Lord Castlereagh and Mr. Canning, and of the last of which I have taken the closing sentence, by way of motto to these remarks. The authors of these publications must have known, that, in all human probability, our army, in Spain, was, at that moment, suffering every species of pain of which the mind can form an idea. When making these publications, could they have dismissed from their imaginations, the many and cruel torments into which that army had been plunged? When discussing the war in Spain, and gaily alluding to it in a figure representing the wordy wars of the House of Commons; when jocosely alluding to "the campaign," could they have forgotten that it was the campaign in Leon and Galicia? Would not men, in whose breasts only a scanty portion of mercy or compassion existed, have, upon the bare mention of the word " campaign," been carried, in idea, to the scene of anxiety, danger, fear, confusion, distress and misery, in those provinces? Would they not have seen waggons and magazines a prey to the floods and the flames, destroy

ought to have been a comfort and a defence? Would they not have had before their eyes, the trooper butchering the faithful sharer of his toils, when no longer able to accelerate his flight; and the poor. exhausted wretch, unable to keep pace, no longer to be propped up by the assistance of his comrades, drop by the way,


following those comrades with longing would hardly have talked in this way to a eyes, eyes destined never more to behold ministry, who had given him no authority comrade, kindred, or country? Did the to march into Spain; and this, observe, pa' the woeful, the heart-piercing visage was on the 22nd of August. But, be this of one of these unfortunate creatures never as it may; whether or not, the ministers come athwart the minds of the authors of knew it to be imprudent to send an army these jocular speeches? Did they never into Spain, until the Central Junta was esthink of the hundred and fifty miles of tablished, their conduct still retains its road strewed with stores (the fruit of blameable hacter; for, when the delay · English labour), with the carcasses of had conti ed so long, they should have English horses, and the bodies of English- known, that it was too late to send an army men, perishing from wounds, fatigue, or into Spain. It was their business to know hunger?But, while Rome burnt, Nero this. We pay Lord Castlereagh and Mr. fiddled; the bloody head of John the Bap- Canning six thousand pounds a year each, tist was presented to a damsel at a dance; besides numerous thousands to their relaand it is universally true, that the Monkey tions, for attending to such matters; to and the Tyger meet in the same mind, or, obtain and make use of such knowledge; in other words, that the most complete and, for them now to tell us, that they want of feeling is inseparable from levity, fear no censure, that they do not look a maxim more emphatically expressed upon themselves as culprits, because they by our great poet, when he says, that "a have done their best, is something that, in man may smile and smile and be a vil- better times, would not be borne with palain."Now, mark me, reader; I do tience. Nations whose affairs are wellnot pretend to ascribe these speeches, managed, do not pay any man 6,000 such as I have found them in the news- pounds a year for doing his best. Where papers above-mentioned, to Lord Castle- they pay such a sum, in the way of salary, reagh and Mr. Canning. All the excep- they expect, and demand, corresponding tionable parts of them may, for aught 1 services. For persons, in such situations, know, have been foisted in by the re- to commit blunders is to commit crimes. porters. I find them printed and pub- What responsibility is there, or can there lished; and, as printed publications, I ex-be, if the accused is to be acquitted upon press my bhorrence of their unfeeling contents, which, at a moment like that when these publications were made, when, besides the general fear and sorrow that prevailed, there must have been two or three hundred thousand individuals in this kingdom half frantic with anxiety for the personal safety of their kindred and friends, were an insult to public opinion and feeling of which, I hope, no one but the authors of these publications could possibly have been guilty.The reported debates in parliament, upon the subject of the Spanish Revolution, present us with very little that is new. The only excuse for not anticipating Napoleon is, that, until October, the Central Junta was not established; and that, before it was established, it would not have been prudent to send an army into Spain. Now, the public will recollect, that the Convention of Cintra, which took place in August, was justified upon the ground, that any sacrifice ought to be made, in order to hasten the march of our army into Spain; and, Sir Hew Dalrymple says this in his dispatch, where he speaks also of the vast importance of getting possession of the passes of the Pyrenees before the French ariny should arrive. Sir Hew Dalrymple

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the plea of having meant well? Sir Robert Calder, who, with an inferior force, beat the enemy, and captured two of his ships, was disgraced upon the express ground of an error in judgment. And shall no disgrace attend those, who, having all the means of the country, and all the means of correct information, in their hands, planned the campaign of Leon and Galicia; where an army, one of the largest ever sent from England, had no chance of safety but in flight; where, to save a part from being captured, the rest were compelled to expose themselves to inevitable destruction ?- -From what was said, in the debates, about waiting for the forma tion of a Central Junta, it appears evident enough, I think, that we shall be found to have been at the bottom of the scheme of a war for Ferdinand VII," His Most Catholic Majesty," who offered to marry one of Buonaparte's relations. Of this bright scheme it will, I am fully persuaded, fi nally appear, that we were the authors. This is a point of vast importance. Of much more importance than all the rest; because upon it turns the question, for what we are expending all this blood and treasure. Mr. Robinson (I wonder who he is) that moved the Address, in answer

to the Speech from the throne, threw out dismal tale to tell. I shall, probably, see some hints, that there might be certain none of thein; but, many of my readers persons, who wished us not to assist the will; and to them I leave the decision Spaniards, unless they first resolved to upon the correctness, or incorrectness of change their government. I was one of my opinions, which, to say the truth, were those persons; and my wish was founded entertained by every politician that I have upon these two reasons; first, because it ever conversed with upon the subject.was sheer folly to suppose, that those, These opinions I expressed to an officer of who were content with the old order of great merit and sense, just before his dethings, without any reform of corruptions parture; and, if he has lived out the camand abuses, would ever fight manfully paign, he will, I am sure, have had thouagainst Napoleon; would ever succeed in sands of opportunities of witnessing the resisting his dukes and his legions: and, truth of what I said.It was impossible; second, because, for the sake of the Spa- it was not in nature, that such a people niards themselves, and for the sake of should be roused to battle by such means. other nations, and England in particular, Buonaparte now laughs at our folly in supit was not desirable that they should suc- posing the thing possible, in engaging in ceed, if such were their object. I have, all such a wild scheme. Well he may. And along, expressed this opinion; and, if it why did not our ministers know this behad been entertained by the ministers, fore? Why did they not tender to the peowe should not now have to mourn over ple of Spain those things which Buonathe sufferings and death of so many valu- parté has tendered to them? It is false; able men. It was notorious; it was a fact grossly false, to say that the Spanish naknown to every man, of any information, tion did not wish to be freed from oppresin all Europe, that the Spaniards were so sion. We never made them the offer. We degraded by their government, that they never encouraged them to break their had none of the feelings of a people left chains. We took part with the adherents in them. What was to be expected from of one branch of the late royal family; such a population, unless some grand con- we royalized the cause of Spain; we made tulsion could have been effected? Such a it a contest between king Ferdinand and community, if it be worthy of the name, king Joseph; we fought for a king and an must be turned up-side-down; must be aristocracy, whom the people knew, against shook to pieces and new moulded, before one whom they knew not, and who, at any any thing like military exertion can be rate, promised them better days than they, reasonably expected from it. This work or even their fathers, ever saw,- -This of renovation was, by the help of the press, has been our conduct, and this conduct going on, till the Central Junta was form- has led to failure, accompanied with every ed, and began to preach up tranquillity possible circumstance of national mortiand put a stop to "licentious publications."fication and disgrace. This, therefore, After this we heard no more of " a reform ought to be the first object of inquiry; of abuses," and of " the late infamous go- but, as the public will see, it will never be terament." Nothing now was to be heard an object of inquiry at all.- -Let us now but of our lord and sovereign Don Fer-look, a little, at the dismal close of the dinand the VII." and of sober lectures, campaign. I believe, that our soldiers unaccompanied with dreadful denun- behaved well before Corunna, I have ciations, issued in his name. These had no doubt that they did, and that they beat no effect; or an effect the contrary of equal numbers opposed to them; but, I what they were intended to produce. cannot agree with General Hope, in callRead the proclamations, the terrific menaces ing it a "victory;" and, I do beseech the of Romana and Palafox, and then believe, public not to give way to any bousting if you can, that the people of Spain were upon the subject. Our army fought for enthusiastic in the cause of "His Catholic their lives, let it be remembered. All that Majesty Ferdinand VII." Men, whom, were not killed may be said to have esto draw out in defence of their country, it caped. Under such circumstances, to talk is necessary to threaten with the gallows, of a " victory" is to make a quite new cannot, I think, be looked upon as very application of the word, and, upon other enthusiastic in its cause. The numerous occasions, to render its meaning dubious. falsehoods of our news-papers, respecting the dispositions of the Spanish people, can no longer be disguised. Every officer, every soldier, who returns, will have his


Of poor General Moore, the end, at any rate, was becoming. The enemy had him at bay; but, there he shewed himself to be a brave man; he did not, as generals

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