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cially if we believe him to have made false promises, that those promises accord with the well-known wishes of the people, or, at least, of that part of the people, which it is of the greatest importance for him to have on his side. There is no denying this. The more we are convinced of his faithlessness; the more we are convinced of the truth of the assertion, that he will stick at nothing to secure success, the more complete our conviction must be, that the prevailing wish of the people was, and is, that that should be done, which he has now promised to do. Our news-papers accuse him of baseness, in making promises, which he does not mean to fulfil; but the question is, can they accuse him of making promises, which he does not think likely to insure his success in conquering Spain? They must do this, and then no soul would be fool enough to believe a word they say; or, they must admit that what he has promised, is consonant to the wishes of the people; and, if they make this admission, they will have to answer the question: why did not we and the Junta make similar promises?- -A population of eleven millions, in a country like Spain, is not to be subdued by arms, if they have arms to defend themselves with, and hearts to use them; but, a population of ten times as many millions, if indifferent to their fate, is, what Mr. Windham described it, an "unresisting medium." If, therefore, we found, that promises, such as those now explicitly made by Napoleon, were necessary to rouze the people to arms, we should as the condition of our aid, have insisted upon the making of those promises; or, we should never have attempted to send an army to Spain. It appears to me, that the very best that can be said for our not having insisted upon this, is, that we were not rightly informed upon the subject; that we were not duly apprised of the people's wishes. This is, at all times, a poor defence for men intrusted with the affairs of a nation, and particularly for men, who, it is notorious, had all the means of correct information completely in their hands.A fraud ! fraud! I see a new fraud approaching, and I beseech the reader's attention to it without delay. While our troops were said to be advancing, they were, by all the newspapers, said to amount to 45,000 men, and those of Romana to 20,000; but, now, the retreat being sounded, ours are, brought down to 35,000 men, and Romana's army is sunk out of sight. This is a nice coun


terpart to the sinking and raising of the numbers of the French in Portugal. And yet these same editors have the assurance to prefer the charge of falshood against Napoleon's bulletins; and, what is worse, gravely to scrmonize upon the immorality. of such falshoods!About two weeks ago, we were in high glee, that Sir John Moore, joined by Romana, was about to envelope and capture, or cut to pieces, the corps of SOULT, which was said to be unsupported; but, now, we can most manfully revile Napoleon, because he has, "in such a cowardly manner," drawn together his whole force to march against "our little army."Not a word do any of our intelligencers give us about the Duc d'Abrantes, who is, however, in Spain, with the eight or ten, and not the twenty-seven, thousand men, who ought to have been with him in England. Not a word about him. That is a sore point. But, in spite of all this disguise, his corps makes part of that army, before whom Sir John Moore is retreating to the coast; to that very coast, whence we carried the Duc d'Abrantes to land him in France.-Seeing that we have Sir John Moore's dispatches in so mutilated a state, it is hardly fair to judge of them; but, it does really surprise one to hear him talk, as if what he had done ought to enable the Spaniards in the South to do something. Poor fellows! they saw him approach near to a corps of the French army, and the moment the main army of the French began to move, they saw him retreat, pushing away as fast as possible towards the coast. What "profit" were they to derive from this? It is a sad mockery; but we have not the whole of the dispatch.The public should be upon their guard against the accounts of the "brilliant affairs" of this or that detachment. I have no doubt that our soldiers are better than the French soldiers. They are cooler and stronger, and I verily believe more brave. But the words "fine fellow" and

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mentioned, and a description of its authors was given, in pages 397 and 398 of the last volume of the Political Register. I then noticed their unjustifiable, their indecent and vile attack upon the wife and family of sir Richard Phillips, and said, that I had been told, that they were a nest of turned-off, half-starved authors. I now find, that I was very correctly informed; but, in the Number, which I have last seen, there is something so very infamous, that I cannot forbear pointing it ont for the reprobation of the public.The editors inform their readers, that MR. FINNERTY is under prosecution for a libel by the Attorney General for having edited the pamphlet of Major Hogan. Then they proceed to state certain things against him, all cal-case is different; and, therefore, for his culated to render him an object of public hatred and scorn, and, of course, violently to prejudice against him those persons who may happen to be the jury upon the trial, than which, surely, nothing can well be more wicked. Not content with this, however, they assert, that he has fled from the country, thereby giving a hint to the Attorney General, if he were so disposed, to cause the gentleman accused to be arrested, and imprisoned until the trial. The bold and unqualified manner, in which this assertion was made, led me to fear that it was true; but, upon inquiry, I found it to be false, and, since that inquiry was made, I have seen Mr. Finnerty, who was in town, I understand, all the while, and who was, as usual, engaged in his business, which is of a nature not to admit of his remaining within doors for any length of time. that it is almost impossible, that the falsehood should not have been wilful, and uttered with the malignant view above described.

prisonment of the person attacked. have now had a pretty long intercourse with the press; but, except in America, I certainly never did meet with any thing so wicked and base as this.These vermin have, I find, long been attacking me, and I was shown, in London, several of their placards, against the walls, with my name in it. As the means of exciting curiosity, and of getting a few shillings, this might be well enough; nor am I, as far as relates to myself, at all disposed to blame them; leaving them to answer for their wilful falshoods, I grudge them nothing that they can get by me, to whom they cannot possibly do any harm. But, Mr. Finnerty is less known; with him the


"Heav'n bas no curse like love to hatred turn'd,

"Nor Hell a fury like a woman scorn'd.” And, I hear, that there are some authoresses engaged in this work, who though never scorned by men, perhaps, have been scorned by the press, a lover whose rejection they do not less sensibly feel.At any rate, whether proceeding from the pen of a scorned authoress, or from that of a scorned author, I think, it will be admitted, that nothing ever was more diabolical. So base an act, to endeavour to excite, by known falshoods; deliberately to sit down, and, by such means, excite a deep prejudice in the minds of those, on whose good or bad opinion, might depend the liberty or im

sake, and for the sake of others, whom they may calumniate, I will just state to the reader, that they have, in the most unequivocal terms, and in the boldest manner, asserted, that I DESERTED from the army. Let the reader now peruse the following authentic documents, which were long ago published; and then I am sure he will want nothing more to satisfy him, as to the degree of credit which is to be given to any thing which they assert.


By the right hon. major lord Edward Fitzgerald, commanding his Majesty's 54th Regiment of Foot, whereof lieut. gen. Frederick is colonel.These are to certify, that the bearer hereof, WILLIAM COBBETT, Serjeant Major in the aforesaid regiment, has served honestly and faithfully for the space of eight years,,nearly seven of which he has been a non-commissioned officer, and of that time he has been five years Serjeant Major to the regiment; but having very earnestly applied for his discharge, he, in consideration of his good behaviour, and the services he has render

ed the regiment, is hereby discharged.— Given under my hand and the seal of the regiment, at Portsmouth, this 19th day of December, 1791. EDWARD FITZGerald.

"Portsmouth, 19th Dec.1791.--Serjeant Major Cobbett having most pressingly applied for his discharge, at major lord Edw. Fitzgerald's request, general Frederick has granted it. General Frederick has ordered major lord Edw. Fitzgerald to return the Serjeant Major thanks for his behavi our and con luct during the time of his being in the regiment, and major lord Edward adds his most hearty thanks to those of the General.”

Botley, 12th January, 1809.

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State Trials:

To be completed in Thirty-Six Monthly
Parts, forming Twelve large Volumes in
Royal Octavo,

No advan

tive to the British arms was of the highest
importance, as it might influence the con-
fidence of the Spaniards, or invite the na-
tions groaning under the yoke of France,
to appeal to this country, and co-operate
with it for their deliverance. The advan-
tages ought, therefore, to have been more
than usually great, which should be deemed
suflicient to balance the objection of
granting to a very inferior army, hopeless
in circumstances, and broken in spirit,
such terms as might argue, that notwith-
standing its disparity in numbers, it was
still formidable to its victors.
tages seem to have been gained that would
not have equally followed from forcing
the enemy to a more marked submission.
The gain of time as to sending succours
into Spain cannot be admitted as a plea;
because it appears that no arrangements
for the reception of our troops in Spain
had been undertaken previous to the Con-
vention; and this is without reasoning on
subsequent facts.-The Convention in
Egypt, which has been advanced as a
parallel case, appears to me inapplicable.
No object beyond the dislodgment of the
French from Egypt was there in question.
In the present instance, the operation of
the Convention upon the affairs of Spain
was a consideration of primary interest;
and in that view, the inevitable effect of
some of the articles offers itself to my
mind as liable to material objection.-I
trust that these reasons will vindicate me
from the charge of presumption, in main-

The Second Part of the above Work will be published on the 1st of February. By some very respectable communications which have been made to me from gentlemen of the profession of the law, it appears that the intention which I originally entertained with respect to the Pleadings, was much misunderstood. Upon that subject, however, I trust all misunderstanding has been completely removed by the assurance given in the Register of the 31st of Dec. that the whole of those Pleadings will be scrupulously retained: And in order to remove all professional doubts, as to how far this new and enlarged Edition of the State Trials may, with safety, be cited as authority in the Courts, and relied on as of equal authenticity with the former, I think it right to state, that it is intended to be a literal transcript of the last edition, as far as that edition extends; that where I have inserted fuller and better reports of any Cases, or of any parts of Cases, the text of the old Edition will nevertheless be retained; and that the new matter will be distinguished in a manner not to be mistaken, and be distinctly pointed out in the Table of Contents to each Volume. To such Gentlemen as may happen to be in possession of curi-taining an opinion contradictory to that ous Trials, or of documents relating to Trials of the description of those to be contained in this Work, I shall be much obliged for a communication of them. If the document, or paper, whether in print or manuscript, be requested to be preserv ed, great care shall be taken of it.

Lord MOIRA's Reasons for disapproving the
Armistice and Convention of Cintra. (Con-
cluded from p. 32.)

HAD it been impracticable to reduce the French army to lay down its arms unconditionally, still an obligation not to serve for a specified time might have been insisted upon, or Belleisle might have been prescribed as the place at which they should be landed, in order to prevent the possibility of their reinforcing (at least for a long time) the armies employed for the subjugation of Spain. Perhaps a stronger consideration than the merit of those terms presents itself. Opinion rela

professed by so many most respectable officers: for even if the reasons be essentially erroneous, if they are conclusive to my mind (as I must conscientiously affirm them to be), it is a necessary consequence that I must disapprove the Convention.MOIRA, General.-Dec. 27, 1808.

SPANISH REVOLUTION.- Fourteenth Bulletin of the French Army of Spain, dated Madrid, Dec. 5, 1808-[The following are passages of the 14th Bulletin which were abridged in vol. xiv. p. 1019.]

A Butcher's boy from Estramadura, who commanded one of the gates, had the audacity to require the duke of Istria should go himself into the town with his eyes blindfolded. Gen. Montbrun rejected this presumptive demand with indignation. He was immediately surrounded, and effected his escape only by drawing his word. He narrowly escaped ta'ling a victim to the imprudence with which he had forgot that he had not to make war with

civilized enemies. To take Madrid by opinion that the town was destitute of reassault might be a military operation of sources, and that the continuation of the little difficulty; but to engage that great defence would be the height of madness; city to surrender, by employing alter- but that the lowest classes of the people, nately force and persuasion, and by res- and the crowd of men strangers to Madrid, cuing the people of property, and real wished to defend themselves, and thought good men, from the oppression under they could do it with effect. They rewhich they groaned: this was what was quired the day of the 4th to make the peoreally difficult. All the exertions of the ple listen to reason.-During the night the emperor, during these two days, had no most mutinous withdrew themselves from other end. They have been crowned with the danger by flight, and a part of the the greatest success. It would have been troops was disbanded. At ten o'clock difficult to form a conception of the dis- gen. Belliard took the command of Maorder that reigned in Madrid, if a great drid; all the posts were put into the hands number of prisoners, arriving in succes- of the French, and a general pardon was sion, had not given an account of the proclaimed.-From this moment, men, frightful scenes of every description, of women, and children, spread themselves which that capital presented the spectacle. about the streets in perfect security. The They had intersected the streets, erected shops were open till eleven o'clock.-All parapets on the houses; barricades of the citizens set themselves to destroy the balls of wool, and of cotton, had been barricades and repave the streets, the formed; the windows had been stopped monks returned into their convents, and with mattrasses. Those of the inhabitants in a few hours Madrid presented the most who despaired of a successful resistance, extraordinary contrast, a contrast inexpli. were flying into the fields; others who cable to those unaccustomed to the manhad preserved some share of reason, and ners of great towns. So many men, who who preferred appearing in the midst of cannot conceal from themse ves what they their property before a generous enemy, would have done in similar circumstances, to abandoning it to the pillage of their express their astonishment at the genefellow-citizens, demanded that they should rosity of the French. Fifty thousand stand not expose themselves to an assault. Those of arms have been given up, and 100 who were strangers to the town, or who pieces of cannon are collected at the Rehad nothing to lose, were for a defence tiro. The anguish in which the inhabito the last extremity, accused the troops bitants of this wretched city have lived for of the line, of treason, and obliged them these four months cannot be described. to continue their fire The enemy had The Junta was without influence; the more than 100 pieces of cannon mounted; most ignorant and the maddest of men a more considerable number of two had all the power in their hands, and the and three-pounders had been dug up, people at every instant massacred, or taken out of cellars, and tied upon carts, threatened with the gallows, their magisa grotesque train, and in itself sufficient trates and their generals.-The general to prove the madness of a people aban- of brigade, Maison, has been wounded. doned to itself. But all means of defence Gen. Bruyere, who advanced imprudently were become useless. The possessors of the moment the firing ceased, has been Retiro are always masters of Madrid. killed. Twelve soldiers have been killed, The emperor took all possible care to pre- and fifty wounded. This loss, so trifling Fent the troops from going from house to for an event of so much importance, is house The city was ruined if many owing to the smallness of the number of troops had been employed. Only some troops suffered to engage: it is owing becompanies of sharp-shooters advanced, and sides, we must say, to the extreme cowthe emperor constantly refused to send ardice of all those that had arms in their any to sustain them. At eleven o'clock hands against us.-The artillery, accordthe prince of Neufchatel wrote the annex-ing to its usual custom, has done great ed letter, No. 3.-His majesty at the same time ordered the fire to cease on all points. -At five o'clock gen. Morla, one of the Members of the Military Junta, and Don Bernardo Yriarte, sent from the town, repaired to the tent of his serene highness the major general. They informed him that the most intelligent persons were of

Services. Ten thousand fugitives, who hd escaped from Burgos and Somosierra,` and the second division of the army of reserve, were on the 3rd within three leagues of Madrid; but being charged by a picquet of dragoons, they fled, abandoning forty pieces of cannon, and 60 caissons.— A meritorious trait cited. An old general

might have balanced the fortune of the war and saved Portugal. But at present, that our army of Blake on the left; that of the centre, and that of Arragon on the right are destroyed; that Spain is almost entirely conquered, and that reason is about to complete its submission, what is to become of Portugal? It is not at Lisbon that the English ought to defend themselves, they ought to have done so at Espinosa, at Burgos, at Tudela, at Somosierra, and before Madrid."

Fifteenth Bulletin, dated Madrid, Dec. 7.

retired from the service, and aged eighty | our forces at Tudela, and at Espinosa, years, was in his house at Madrid, near the street of Alcala-a French officer entered, and took up his quarters there with his party. This respectable old man appeared before him, holding a young girl by the hand, and said, "I am an old soldier; I know the rights and the licentiousness of war; there is my daughter; I give her 900,000 livres for her portion; save her honour, and be her husband." The young officer took the old man, his family, and his house, under his protection. How culpable are they who expose so many peaceful citizens, so many unfortunate inhabitants of a great capital, to such misfortunes-The duke of Dantzic arrived at Segovia on the 3d. The duke of Istria is gone in pursuit of the division of Pena, which having escaped from the battle of Tudela, took the route of Guadalaxara. Florida Blanca, and the Junta, had fled to Toledo. They did not think themselves in safety in that town neither, and have gone to take refuge with the English. The conduct of the English is shameful. On the 20th Nov. they were at the Escurial to the number of 6000 men. They passed some days there. They pretended they would do nothing less than pass the Pyrenees, and come to the Garonne. Their troops are very fine, and well disciplined. The confidence with which they had inspired the Spaniards is inconceivable. Some hoped that this division would go to Somosierra; others, that it would come to defend the capital of so dear an ally. Scarcely were they informed that the emperor was at Somosierra, when the English troops beat a retreat on the Escurial. From thence, co bining their march with the division which was at Salamanca, they have taken their course towards the sea. "Arms, powder, and clothing, they have given to us,' said a Spaniard, but their soldiers came only to excite us, to lead us astray, and to abandon us in the critical moment." "But are you ignorant," answered the French officer, "of the most recent facts of our history. What have they done for the Stadtholder, for Sardinia, for Austria? What have they done recently for Russia? What have they done still more recently for Sweden? They every where foment war; they distribute arms like poison; but they shed their blood only for their direct and personal interests. Expect nothing else from their selfishness." "Still," replied the Spaniard, "their cause was ours. Forty thousand English, added to


His majesty has named the general of artillery, Senarmont, general of division. The major Legur has been named adjutant commandant. The life of this officer had been despaired of, but he is now out of danger. The count Khrazinski, colonel of the Polish light horse, though ill, has always wished to charge at the head of his corps. The sieurs Babecki and Wolygurski, quarter-masters, and Surzeyski, a soldier of the Polish light horse, who have taken standards from the enemy, have been named members of the legion of honour. His majesty has moreover granted to the Polish light horse eight decorations for the officers, and so many for the soldiers. The chief of squadron, Lubienski, reconnoitred, on the 2nd, the remains of the army of Castanos, near Guadalaxara. They were under the command of general Pena. Castanos was said to have been deposed by the General Junta. The duke of Infantado has been one of the principal causes of the misfortunes his country has suffered; he was the principal instrument in England, in its lamentable progress against Spain; it was he who was employed by that country to cause dissensions between the father and the son; to overturn the throne of Charles, whose attachment to France was known; to excite outrages against the first minister of that sovereign; to elevate to the supreme power that young prince, who, by his marriage with a princess of the ancient house of Naples, had drank in that hatred against the French, from which that house had never departed. It was the duke of Infantado who played the principal part in the conspiracy of the Escurial, and it was to him that the power of generalissimo of the armies of Spain was confided at that time. He was afterwards seen taking the oath of allegiance at Bayonne between the hands of king Joseph, as colonel of the Spanish guards. On his return to Madrid, we saw him throw off the masque, and shew himself

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