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the United States are placed, and the necessity, if war be resorted to, of making it at the same time against both nations, and these the two most powerful of the world, are the principal causes of hesitation. There would be none in resorting to that remedy, however calamitous, if a selection could be made on any principle of justice, or without a sacrifice of national independence. On a question of such difficulty, involving the most important interests of the Union, and which has not, perhaps, until lately, been sufficiently considered, your Committee think the house alone competent to pronounce a decisive opinion: and they have, in this report, confined themselves to an exposition of the subject, and to such introductory resolutions, as will be equally applicable to either alternative. The first of these being merely declaratory of a determination not to submit to foreign aggressions, may, perhaps, at a first view, appear superfluous. It is however, believed by the committee, that a pledge by the representatives of the nation, that they will not abandon its essential rights, will not at this critical moment be unacceptable.-The misapprehensions which seem to have existed, and the misrepresentations which have been circulated, respecting the state of our foreign relations, render also such declaration expedient. And it may not be useless that every foreign nation should understand that its aggressions never will be justified or encouraged by any decription of American citizens. For the question for every citizen now is, whether he will rally round the government of his choice, or enlist under foreign banners? Whether he will be for his country or against his country?
increasing pressure upon the people; and every day's experience justifies a belief that a continuance of these laws must soon become intolerable. As measures of coercion, they are now acknowledged to be altogether_impotent. They afford satisfaction to France, and are regarded as ineffectual demonstrations of a hostile disposition by Great Britain. Upon our own country, their effects are becoming daily and palpably more injurious. The produce of our agriculture, of our forests, and our fisheries, is excluded altogether from every foreign market; our merchants and mechanics are deprived of employ ment; our coasting trade is interrupted and harrassed by the most grievous embar rassments; and our foreign trade is becom ing diverted into channels, from which there is no prospect of its return. The sources of our revenue are dried up, and government must soon resort to direct taxation. Our sailors are forced to expatriate themselves. Strong temptations are offered to systematical evasions of the laws, which tend to corrupt the spirit of honourable commerce, and will materially injure the public morals. In fact, the evils which are menaced by the continuance of this policy are so enormous and deplorable, the suspension of commerce is so contrary to the habits of our people, and so repugnant to their feelings and interests, that they must soon become intolerable, and endanger our domestic peace and the union of these states. As the embargo laws have been the cause of the public distress, your committee are of opinion that no equal permanent, or effectual relief can be af forded to the citizens of the commorwealth, but by the repeal of these laws They persuade themselves that the con Report of a Committee of the House of Repre-gress of the United States must be fully sentatives of Massachusetts, upon the sub-impressed with a sense of the total ineffi ject of the Embargo, dated 15th Nov. 1808. THE Committee appointed to consider Whether it will be expedient for this legislature to adopt any measure with a view to procure a repeal of the laws of the United States, interdicting to the citizens all foreign commerce, and imposing vexatious embarrassments on the coasting trade; to relieve the people of the commonwealth from their present distressed state, and to arrest the progress of that ruin which threatens to involve all classes of the community," beg leave to report: That the committee perceive with the most serious regret, that the distresses occasioned by the several laws imposing an embargo, have borne with extreme and
cacy of these laws for any valuable pur pose, and of their direct tendency to the most serious consequences. Your com mittee, therefore, trust, that congress wil not fail to repeal them. In this confidence therefore, your committee are of opinion that, upon this subject, the legislatur should, in its present session, confine itsel to a repeated disapprobation of the law interdicting foreign commerce, and to in structing our senators, and requesting ou representatives in congress to use thei utmost exertions to procure their repeal.— Your committee might have contented themselves with the preceding remarks, hac not the late Message of the President o the United States excited the most seriou
alarm; which, in the present critical state | of the country, they conceive it a duty to express. They perceive, with the most. painful regret, that, in the estimation of the president, our country is now presented with the only alternative of a continued embargo, or a ruinous war; but they cannot hesitate to express their confident belief that the wisdom of the government may yet find means to avoid the necessity of electing between these great public calamities. If, however, this severe necessity exists in regard to Great Britain, they are led by the message to presume that it results, in a great measure, if not entirely, from the determination of the executive to adhere to the proclamation of July, 1807, interdicting all British ships of war from the waters of the United States; which has been, and as we infer from the message, is still deemed by the British Goverment, a measure so inhospitable and oppressive, if not hostile in its character, as to form an insuperable obstacle to amicable adjustment.-Upon this delicate and important subject, the committee are far from asserting, that the attack on the frigate Chesapeake did not justify the original issuing of this proclamation, and enforcing it so long as the injury might be presumed to have the sanction of the British government. But as this violation of the neutral rights was promptly and explicitly disavowed by the Sovereign of the aggressor, before the remonstrances or measures of our government could be known as the right to search our national ships was expressly disclaimed, and a special envoy deputed for the professed object of making to our government a full, satisfactory, and public reparation, on the simple condition of a previous revocation of this proclamation; your committee are constrained to declare their opinion, that such a revocation, under such circumstances, would not have involved any dishonourable concession, or an abandonment of any just right of pretensions, but would have been a fair, reasonable, and magnanimous pledge of the sincerity of the wishes of the American Government to restore the accustomed relations of peace and amity between the two countries. This course must have compelled the British envoy to have offered that ample and honourable reparation, which would have been deemed by our nation and by the world, an adequate atonement for the outrage; or have justified, in the event of its refusal, not only the renewal of the proclamation,
but the adoption of measures of the most rigorous and hostile description. But even on the precise presumption that the course adopted by the government, in refusing to revoke the proclamation as a preliminary to the adjustment of that controversy, be sanctioned by the usages of nations, and the justice of our claims, your Committee are still of opinion, that a punc tilious adherence to diplomatic forms and precedents should not be maintained at the risk of war, by a nation whose genius and policy are pacific; and which, while justly jealous of its national honour and independance, looks principally to the substantial security of those blessings, and regards as insignificant those petty contentions which originating in courtly pride and vanity, frequently terminate in bloody wars and they, therefore, think that this proclamation ought not, in the present situation of Europe and this country, to remain as the only, or even as the principal, barrier to the restoration of our amicable relations with the British nation.-Your Committee therefore ask leave to report the following resolutions:-Resolved, that the Senators of this commonwealth in congress, be instructed, and the representatives thereof requested, to use their strenuous exertions to procure an immediate repeal of the various laws imposing an embargo on the ships and vessels of the United States; as the only equal and effectual means of affording permanent relief to the citizens of this commonwealth from the aggravated evils which they now experience.-Resolved, that although this legislature would cheerfully support the general government in the prosecution of a just and necessary war, yet they cannot perceive the neces sity intimated in the message of the Presi dent to congress, of continuing the embar-, go, or resorting to war. That it is not the policy of the United States to engage in a controversy with any nation, upon points of diplomatic usage, or equivocal right, provided substantial reparation for injuries can be obtained; and that the revocation of the proclamation interdicting the British ships of war from our waters ought not, in the opinion of this legislature, to be deemed an inadmissible preliminary, which should obstruct the adjustment of the controversy between the United States and Great Britain.
Twenty-first Bulletin of the French Army in Spain. (No Date.)
THE English entered Spain on the 29th Oct. during the months of Nov. and Dec.
they beheld the destruction of the army manners, and of religion, contributed not of Gallicia at Espinosa; of the army of a little to that disposition of men's minds. Estremadura at Burgos, of that of Arragon They reproached the Spaniards with havand Valencia, at Tudela; of the army of ing no longer an army to unite with theirs, reserve at Somo-Sierra; in fine, they be- and with having deceived the English goheld the fall of Madrid without making vernment. The Spaniards returned for ana single movement, and without any at- swer, that Spain had numerous armies, but tempt to succour the Spanish armies, to that the English had allowed them to be whom, however, a division of the English destroyed without having made any effort troops would have proved of considerable to assist them. During the 15 days that assistance. In the beginning of Decem- have just elapsed, they did not fire a single ber, information was received that the musket. The light cavalry only had given columns of the British army were re- some blows with their swords. Gen. Du treating on Corunna, where they were to resnel, at the head of 400 light horse of re-embark. By later accounts, it after- the guard, fell in at the close of the evenwards appeared that they had halted, and ing with a column of English infantry on that on the 16th Dec. they set out from their march, sabred a number of soldiers, Salamanca in order to take the field. As and carried disorder into the columns.-early as the 15th, the light cavalry had Gen. Lefebvre, Disnonettes, colonel of the marched from Valladolid. The whole of chasseurs of the guard, detached two days the English army passed the Douro, and before, with three squadrons of his regiarrived on the 23d in presence of the duke ment, having taken a quantity of baggage, of Dalmatia at Saldanha.-As soon as the of women, and stragglers, and finding the Emperor was apprised at Madrid of this bridge of Ezela cut down,. imagined that unexpected determination on the part of the town of Benavente was evacuated. the English, he marched in order to cut Carried away by that impetuosity with off their retreat, and pursue their rear. which the French soldiers have been so But notwithstanding the diligence exerted often reproached, he swam across the river, by the French troops, the passage of the in order to make for Benavente, where he mountain of Guadarrama, which was co- fell in with the whole of the cavalry of vered with snow, the incessant rain, and the rear-guard of the English: a long conoverflowing of the torrents, delayed their test here ensued, of 400 men against 2000. march full two days.-On the 22d the There was no resisting numbers. Those Emperor left Madrid. His head-quarters brave fellows recrossed the river. The were on the 23d at Villa-Castin, the 25th horse of gen. Lefebvre was killed by a at Tordesillas, and on the 27th at Medino ball. He had himself received a wound de Rio-Secco. On the 24th, at break of from a pistol shot, and, being dismounted, day, the enemy had began to move, in was made prisoner. Ten of his chasseurs, order to outflank the left of the duke of who had also been dismounted, were likeDalmatia, but having been informed dur-wise taken, 5 were drowned, and 20 were ing the morning of the movement that took place at Madrid, they immediately began to retreat, abandoning their Spanish adherents, whose passions they had inflamed, the remains of the Gallician army, that had conceived fresh hopes, some of their hospitals, a part of their baggage, and a great number of stragglers. They committed great devastations, the inevitable result of forced marches of troops in retreat; they carried away with them mules, horses, and several other effects; they pillaged a great number of churches and convents. In the abbey of Sahagun, which contained 60 monks, and which had all along beenchingen at Villatora. On his departure respected by the French army, they committed every sort of depredation. Every where the priests and the monks were seen flying at their approach. This disorderly conduct exasperated the country against them, and their difference of language,
wounded. This sharp affair must have convinced the English what they would have to dread from such men in general action; gen. Lefebvre undoubtedly committed a fault, but it was the fault of a Frenchman; he ought to be blamed and rewarded at the same time. The number of prisoners taken from the enemy, up to the present moment, and who are chiefly composed of scattered individuals and strag glers, amounts to 300.-On the 28th the head-quarters of the Emperor were at Valderas; the head-quarters of the duke of Dalmatia at Manilla, the duke of El
from Madrid, the Emperor appointed king Joseph his lieut.-general, with the command of the garrison of the capital, toge ther with the corps of the dukes of Dantzic and Belluno; the divisions of cavalry of Lasalle, Milhaud, and Latour Maubourg,
are left for the protection of the centre. The weather is exceedingly bad. To a piercing cold, heavy and continued rains have succeeded. We sufler, but the English must suffer still more.
that the Spanish armies had ceased to exist. The English, therefore, could not be ignorant that the Spaniards were without armies. When, ten days ago, they again moved forward, intoxicated with the silly hope of deceiving the vigilance of the French general, they fell into the snare Benavente, Dec. 31.-On the 30th, the which the French general had laid for cavalry, commanded by the duke of Istria, drawing them into the open country. They passed the Ezela. On the evening of the had before made some marches on their 30th, it traversed Benavente, and pursued return to their ships.-You ought, observe the enemy as far as Puenta de la Vilana. the Spaniards, to have persisted in that On the same day the head-quarters were prudent determination, or else you should established at Benavente. The English have been in force enough to balance the were not satisfied with destroying an arch destinies of the French. Above all, you of the bridge of Ezela, but they also blew ought not to have at first advanced up the buttresses with mines, a damage with such confidence, only afterwards to wholly unprofitable, and which could be fall back with so much precipitation. You hurtful only to the country; the rear be- should not have drawn the theatre of the took themselves to the most shocking plun- war among us, and exposed us to the radering. The soldiers, in the excess of vages of the two armies. After having their continual intemperance, gave reins brought down upon our heads such accuto all the licentiousness of brutal inebriety. mulations of disasters, you ought not to Every thing in their conduct bespoke ra- throw the fault upon us.-We have not ther an hostile army than one which came been able to resist the French troops; nor. to the assistance of a friendly power.- do you seem more able to make head The contempt of the English for the Spa- against them. Forbear therefore to accuse niards gave a sharper edge to the impres- us, to outrage us-all our misfortunes we sion made by so many outrages. This owe to you.-The English had reported experience will throw a salutary damp on throughout the country, that they had dethose insurrections, instigated by foreigners. feated 5000 of the French cavalry on the One cannot help regretting that the English banks of the Ezela, and that the field of had not sent an ariny into Andalusia. The battle was covered with their dead. The army that passed through Benavente ten inhabitants of Benavente were much surdays ago, triumphed already in hope, and prised, upon visiting the field of battle, to already having their colours hung with have found there only three Englishmen trophies, nothing could equal the audacity and two French. That contest, of 400 and security they displayed. On their men against 2000, does great honour to the return, their countenance was sadly chang- French. During the whole of the 29th, ed. They were harassed with fatigue, the river continued to swell considerably, and seemed to be borne down with shame so that at the close of the evening it became of retreating without a battle. In order impossible to ford it. It was in the midto anticipate the just reproaches of the dle of the river, and at the moment he was Spaniards, the English continued inces- on the point of being drowned, that genesantly to repeat, that they had been pro-ral Lefebvre, being carried away by the mised to be joined by numerous forces; and the Spaniards repelled their calumnious assertions by arguments to which there was no answer. Ten days ago, when the English were traversing the country, they well knew that the Spanish armies had been destroyed. The commissaries whom they employed to accompany the armies of the left, of the centre, and of the right, knew full well that it was not 50,000 men only, but 180,000 men that the Spaniards had put under arms; that these 180,000 men had fought, while, for six weeks, the English had remained unconcerned tators of their struggles. These commissaries could not but have made it known
current to the side occupied by the English, was made prisoner. The loss of the enemy, in killed and wounded, in that affair of advanced posts, has been far greater than that of the French. The flight of the English was so precipitate, that they left at their hospital their sick and wounded, and were obliged to burn a fine magazine of tents and cloathing. They killed all the horses that were over fatigued or wounded, and which might embarrass their retreat. It is scarcely here to be credited how that spectacle, so shocking to our manners, of hundreds of horses shot with pistols, is revolting to the Spaniards. Many persons look upon it as a
sort of sacrifice-some religious rite which gives rise, in the mind of the Spaniards, to very strange pictures of the religion of England. The English are retreating in the utmost haste. All the Germans in their pay are deserting. Our army will, this evening, be at Astorga near the borders of Gallicia.
in their power to assist the Spaniards; that its leaders, or those whose orders they executed, have been guilty of the extreme folly of making a movement forward after the Spanish armies had been destroyed; that, in a word, it entered upon the new year by running away, pursued by an enemy, whom it did not dare to fight, and by the curses of those whom it had stirred up to resistance, and whom it was its duty to Benavente, Jan. 1.-THE duke of Dal- support. Such enterprizes and such results matia arrived on the 30th December at can belong only to a country that has no Mancille, where was the left of the enemy, government. Fox, or even Pitt, would not consisting of the Spaniards under gen. have been guilty of such blunders. To Romana. Gen. Franceschi overthrew them contend against France by land, who has in a single charge, killed a great number, one hundred thousand cavalry, fifty thoutook two standards, and made prisoners a sand horses for all sorts of military equipcolonel, two lieut. colonels, fifty officers, ment, and nine hundred thousand infantry, and 1, 500 men.-On the 31st the duke of was, on the part of England, carrying folly Dalmatia entered Leon, where he found to the utmost extreme; it betrays indeed a 2000 sick. Romana succeeded Blake in greediness for disgrace; it is, in fine, to the command, after the battle of Espnosa. administer the affairs of England just as the The remains of that army, which, while cabinet of the Thuilleries could wish them before Bilboa, consisted of 50,000 men, to be administered.-It betrays no small were reduced to almost 5000 at Mancilla. ignorance of Spain, to have imagined that These wretches, without clothes, and op- any importance could be attached to popupressed with every misery, filled the hospi- lar commotion, or to indulge the smallest tals.-The English are held in detestation hope that by kindling in that country the by these troops whom they despise, and by flames of sedition, such a conflagration the peaceable inhabitants whom they abuse could be attended with any decided result and whose substance they devour, in order or any material duration.-A few fanatito support their own army.-The mind of cal priests are quite sufficient to compose the people of the kingdom of Leon is much and propagate libels, to carry a momentary changed. They loudly cry out for Peace disorder into the minds of men: but someand their King; they curse the English thing else is required to cause a nation to and their fallacious insinuations. They rise to arms.-At the time of the French reproach them with being the cause of the Revolution, it required three years and the shedding of Spanish blood, in order to feed presence of the convention to prepare the the English monopoly, and perpetuate the means of military successes; and who that war on the continent. The perfidy of does not know to what hazards France was England and her motives are now obvious nevertheless exposed? France was, howto the meanest and most illiterate Spanish ever, stirred up. Supported by the unanipeasant. They know what they suffer: mous resolution to reassert rights of which and the authors of their sufferings are be- she had been deprived in times of obscurity. fore their eyes.-Meantime the English In Spain, it was a few men who stirred up retreat with the utmost haste, pursued by the people, in order to preserve the exclu the duke of Istria, with 9000 cavalry. sive possession of rights odious to the peoAmong the magazines which they burnt ple. Those who fought for the inquisition, at Benevente, were, independant of tents, for the Franciscans, and for feudal rights, 4000 blankets, and a great quantity of rum. might be animated by an ardent zeal for We picked up upwards of 200 waggons of their personal interests, but could never inbaggage and ammunition, left on the road fuse into a whole nation a firm resolve or a from Benevente to Astorga. The shattered permanent opinion. In spite of the Engremains of Romana's army threw them-lish feudal rights, the Franciscans, and the selves into the latter town, and increased the confusion.The events of the English expedition to Spain must furnish materials for a fine opening speech to the English Parliament. The English nation must be informed, that her army remained three months in a state of inaction, while it was
inquisition, have no longer any existence in Spain.-After the capture of Rosas, gen. Gouvion Saint-Cyr shaped his march against Barcelona, at the head of the 7th corps. He dispersed every thing that he found before that place, and formed a junction with gen. Duhesme. That junction