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employed by the Lower Classes of Freemen in various menial occupations, for the profit of their Masters.-Slaves thus circumstanced are not perhaps materially injured by a compulsory sale, since their employments are not such as to create strong local attachments.

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Still, to whatever degree, the removal of Slaves from their Homes, to satisfy the debts of their Owners, may occur, it is obviously fit that it should, if possible, be prevented, and that precaution should be taken against the more frequent occurrence of such removals hereafter. I am, therefore, with reference to the preceding remarks, to direct you to call the attention of the Legislature of the Colony of to the following Amendments of the Law upon this subject:-without infringing on the Rights of any Judgment Creditors, who may at present hold unsatisfied Judgments, provision might be made for preventing the keeping of such Judgments alive, after the Debts for which they may have been obtained shall have been really satisfied. A time should also be fixed, beyond which no existing Judgment should be capable of being enforced. With reference to Judgments which may be hereafter obtained, the Executions to issue on them, might perhaps be, both in form and effect, a Sequestration rather than a Sale, that is to say, the Creditor might be permitted to take possession of the Estate, Slaves, and Utensils, and to hold them together, until his Claims were satisfied by the proceeds; or the rents and profits of the Land, Slaves, and Utensils, might be put up to sale as one entire Lot, without removing them one from the other. If, however, the substitution of a Sequestration for a Sale should not be practicable, the only other Plan which I can suggest is, that of directing that the Land, Slaves, and Plantation Utensils, shall always be sold together in one entire Lot. It may also be expedient to provide, that Slaves shall not in future, be considered as separate Assets for the payment of Debts of the deceased Owner; but that the Land, and Slaves, and Plantation Stock, shall always be sold together.

With regard to all Slaves, whether attached to Estates or not, you will propose an Enactment, prohibiting their being sold apart from their Husbands, or Wives, or apart from any Child, who may be under the age of 14. As, unhappily, the disuse of Marriage has prevented the growth of any Legal relationship between the Slaves, the prohibition must extend to the case of

reputed Husbands, Wives, or Children. I have also to suggest, that if the Debtor should not be the Proprietor both of the Husband and Wife, or of the Parents and Children, an Appraisement should be made of the value of such Members of a Family as are the Property of the Debtor, and they should be offered at something below such appraised value to the Proprietor of the other Members of the Family.

On the subject of the Punishment of Slaves, I have already in some degree anticipated the object of the present Despatch, by directing that Legislative Measures should be proposed for preventing the punishment of Flogging in every case where the offender is a Woman. I also pointed out the necessity of prohibiting the use of the Whip in the field. I have now, in addition to those Instructions, to direct that you will cause some effectual Law to be submitted to the Legislature, for preventing any domestic punishment whatever, until the day following that on which the Offence may have been committed, and even then, except in the presence of one Free Person, besides the Person under whose authority the Punishment may be inflicted. If the punishment should exceed three lashes, it should be provided that a regular entry should be made in a PlantationBook, to be kept for that purpose:-first, of the nature of the Offence; secondly, of the Time when, and of the Place where, it was committed; thirdly, of the Names of the Free Persons present at the Punishment; and fourthly, of the number of lashes received. The accuracy of the entries in this Book should be certified Quarterly, by an Oath to be taken by the Owner, Manager, or Overseer, before a Magistrate. As the offence of punishing a Slave in the absence of any Free Person, would not be susceptible of direct proof, if it should happen that the Slaves themselves were not among that Class whose evidence it is proposed to admit; to ensure as far as possible the detection of any such counteraction of the Law, it should be enacted, that, if the person of a Slave should exhibit marks of recent flogging or mutilation, which he or any other Slave should state to be the traces of punishment not duly registered, such appearances should be considered sufficient to raise a presumption of the Law having been broken, and the Manager or Overseer should be condemned to suffer a given Penalty to be enacted, unless he could repel that presumption by sufficient Evidence.

The last subject to which I propose at present to advert, is

the necessity of insuring to the Slave the enjoyment of whatever Property he may be able to acquire. For this purpose, Savings Banks should be established under Legislative Authority, upon the model of those in England; but, with this alteration, viz: that the Depositor should, at the time of first becoming a Subscriber, state to whom, in the event of his own death, the fund is to devolve. An entry of this declaration being duly registered at the Bank, should be declared equivalent to a Will, in the absence of any other.

In conclusion, I have most earnestly to impress upon you the necessity of proceeding to carry these Improvements into effect, not only with all possible dispatch, but in the spirit of perfect and cordial co-operation with the efforts of His Majesty's Government. More particularly, you will be attentive to have the necessary Laws framed with such precaution and foresight, as, if possible, to provide an effectual security for the faithful observance of them. To this end, you will consult with the Legal Advisers of the Crown on the frame of the necessary Bills, and you will from time to time communicate with me upon the progress you make in this work, or upon the difficulties which may obstruct its completion, and if, (what I am unwilling to imagine) you should meet with any serious opposition, you will lose no time in transmitting to me the necessary Communication, in order that I may take the earliest opportunity of laying the matter before Parliament, and submitting for their consideration such Measures as it may be fit to adopt in consequence.

I have the honour to be, &c.


Earl Bathurst to The Governors of Trinidad and St. Lucie. Colonial-Office, Downing Street, 9th July, 1823.


I HAVE to enclose a Copy of my Despatch of this date to the Governors of His Majesty's Colonies in the West Indies having Legislatures, in order that you may take the necessary Measures for preparing the Slave Proprietors in the Colony under your Government to expect that Regulations to the same effect, in addition to those specified in my former Despatch

upon this subject, will be provided for by an Order of His Majesty in Council. I have, &c.


PROCLAMATION respecting Aets of Insubordination, produced by false Reports of the Emancipation of the Slaves, in the West Indies.

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WHEREAS it has been represented to Us, that the Slaves in some of Our West India Colonies, and of Our Possessions on the Continent of South America, have been erroneously led to believe, that Orders had been sent out by Us for their Emancipation: And whereas such Belief has produced Acts of Insubordination, which have excited Our highest Displeasure: We have thought fit, by and with the Advice of Our Privy Council, to issue this Our Royal Proclamation: And We do hereby declare and make known, That the Slave Population in Our said Colonies and Possessions will be undeserving of Our Protection if they shall fail to render entire Submission to the Laws, as well as dutiful Obedience to their Masters: And We hereby charge and command all Our Governors of Our said West India Colonies and Possessions, to give the fullest Publicity to this Our Proclamation, and to enforce, by all the legal Means in their Power, the Punishment of those who may disturb the Tranquillity and Peace of Our said Colonies and Possessions.

Given at Our Court at Carlton House, this 10th Day of March, 1824, and in the 5th Year of Our Reign. GOD SAVE THE KING.

ACT to carry into effect a Convention relating to Austrian Loans*. [16th March, 1824.]

WHEREAS an Act was passed in the 35th Year of the Reign of His late Majesty King George the Third, intituled "An

* Geo. 4, cap. 59.

Act for guaranteeing the Payment of the Dividends on a Loan of £4,600,000 to the Emperor of Germany:" and whereas another Act was passed in the 37th Year of the Reign of His said late Majesty, intituled "An Act for guaranteeing the Payment of the Dividends on a Loan of £1,620,000 to the Emperor of Germany, and the regular Redemption of the Capital to be created thereby; for enabling the Governor and Company of the Bank of England to retain the Sums granted for paying Advances made by them for the Public Service; and for repaying to the Contributors to the Loans of £14,500,000 and £1,620,000, the Excess of their Deposits beyond the proportional Deposits to the said Loans:" and whereas a Convention was entered into at Vienna, on the 17th Day of November, in the Year of our Lord 1823, between His Majesty and His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, whereby His Majesty the Emperor of Austria engaged to pay the Sum of £2,500,000 Sterling, in Satisfaction of the whole of the British Claims upon His Imperial Majesty, under the Head of the Austrian Loan; and it was also agreed, that the said Sum of £2,500,000 Sterling should be paid into the British Treasury, in the Name and on the Behalf of the Austrian Government, by the Houses of Baring, Reid, and Irving, and Rothschild, in London; the said Houses having been appointed and fully empowered by the Austrian Government to make the above Payment, according to such Terms as had been agreed to and were judged satisfactory by the British Government; and that, immediately after the Ratification of the said Convention by His Majesty and the Emperor of Austria, His Majesty's Plenipotentiary should deliver up to such Persons as should be appointed by His Imperial Majesty to receive them, the original Letters of Octroi, and the whole of the Imperial Bonds which had been held in the Possession of His Majesty's Government as Securities from the Time of raising the Austrian Loan, and His Majesty would thenceforth be responsible for the complete Release of the Austrian Government from all British Claims that could be founded upon the said Loans; and it was stipulated and agreed in and by the said Convention, that all pecuniary Claims upon Austria connected with the said Austrian Loans, as well as all pecuniary Claims upon Great Britain, of whatever Description they might be, which had existed, or might be considered to exist, on the part of the Imperial Government of Austria, should be

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