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and the integrity and wisdom of its Congress; and, in addition to these, there have been no inconsiderable number of occurrences and unforeseen events, which display in characters sufficiently legible, that He who regulates Society has especially favoured that of Anahuac.

We received into our arms an infant Republic, but in a state most truly deplorable: the Treasury exhausted, the paper money at a discount of seventy-five per cent. ; credit at its lowest point; the means of relief remote and difficult, without economy or system in the administration of the public finances; the Army without clothing, unarmed, undisciplined, with the whole train of evils inseparable from such a state; our naval force deficient in everything, in complete inactivity, rotting in Port before the cost of building them was paid. On the other hand, without any consideration in Europe, or intercourse or without it; official relations with any of the Nations which compose Treaties or Alliance with the Americans: in addition to this, with powerful and exasperated factions in the interior; conspiracies momentarily succeeding each other; authorities of the first rank, acting either equivocally or in opposition to the Government. The first Congress attacked by opinion, on account of the mode of convocation, some of the Provinces contemplating a movement, which was to be legal, uniform, and simultaneous: in some points, symptoms, well organized, of a dangerous dissolution of the bond of union order at an end, most scandalously disregarded, even in the seat of the Supreme Executive itself; the Capital in the hands of a faction, and the Government seeking an asylum in the bosom of the Congress. Such, Countrymen, was the accumulation of ruins and frightful precipices, over which we have been traversing for a few months to the point at which we now find ourselves.


We must acknowledge and confess, that this detail is neither flattering nor satisfactory; but, to the honour of the Mexican People, to the confusion of the tyrants who assail us, and for the information of the Nations who, without prejudice or partiality, observe our progressin what Country of the World has disorder existed, so little characterised by blood, and other disastrous events? In what Nation of the earth have there not been the most fatal consequences and results, produced by phenomena and changes, such as have been experienced by us in so short a space of time? Even on the memorable 24th, 25th, and 26th of January, of this year, which have been so much spoken of by our enemies in Europe to our discredit, did any blood flow? Was not the property of our Citizens respected? Is it not certain that even the ordinary irregularities of populous Cities disappeared on those nights? Let therefore the injustice and maledictions of those who, from the other side of the ocean, calumniate, because they cannot devour us, for ever cease.

But that which ought to check their malignity, and destroy all

hope of enchaining us again, is the consideration of our progress, and the view of the contrast which exists between that which we were eighteen months ago, and that which we now are. Our credit has decidedly recovered itself, the paper money is at par, and is nearly all redeemed, the civil debt is satisfied, part of the loan which the Government had been authorized to contract, is completed, and the remainder has been contracted for on much more beneficial terms. With regard to what has been done for our defence, proper means have been taken to secure an adequate force, and our Veterans are now clothed and armed-discipline is re-established, and the excess of officers considerably reduced at the same time our Artillery is already more than equal to our wants, and an efficient Militia is actually organizing itself; so that, within a short time, the Army of the Republic, already respectable from the number and excellence of its Troops, will be placed in a state, to enable us to live in complete security, without fearing attacks and insults from abroad. With respect to our infant Navy, the cost of the small Vessels which we already had, has been paid, and of those newly constructed, a part is in constant activity: their crews, management, and regulations, are on the best footing; and according to the arrangements lately made by the Government, there is every reason to hope, that ere long the Mexican flag will float, and cause itself to be respected, on the Shores of the Atlantic. On the other hand, the Territory and power of the Republick have been augmented by the accession of the hitherto named Province of Chiapa, which, having freely declared, and with an extraordinary demonstration of joy, in favour of our Federation, is now one of its States: and this happy and memorable event in the civil order of the Country, is still more important, considering the morality, the justice, the disinterestedness and dignity with which the negociation has been conducted.

With respect to our relations with other Powers: Treaties of the first importance have been concluded with the warlike Republick of Colombia: That of The United States of North America, which has already recognized our Independence, has lately named a Minister to reside amongst us; and already its Consuls, in our Capital and Ports, are in the full exercise of their functions. A similar state of things exists with the Agents of the same Class of the King of Great Britain; and from the frank, benevolent, and friendly conduct of that Nation towards Mexico, we may entertain a well-founded hope, that in a short time the Independence of Anahuac will be recognised by the Government of a People who rule the Seas. On our part, we have sent a Minister with Full Powers to the Government of His Britannic Majesty, of whose arrival in London we have received intelligence; and according to the course of things, and the order in which events present themselves, it is to be hoped that the object of his mission will be completely fulfilled. Our Mission to The United States of North America

is already on its way to its destination. A Minister has been named to represent us in the Republick of Colombia: and another also to arrange our affairs at Rome, in order to settle our ecclesiastical concerns; and one, with the same authority, will shortly be designated to The United States of the Centre of America, whose Independence has, within these few days, been recognised, and whose Envoy has formally presented his Credentials to the Executive Power. Here we should desire, for our own sake as well as for that of Spain itself, to be enabled to announce that Negotiations had been entered into with that Nation: there were, indeed, hopes of accomplishing this end, with the former Government; but Ferdinand VIIth, being restored to the exercise of absolute power, his Decrees relative to us, and his replies to a Power that wished to mediate in this affair, impede at present all means of conciliation, and only afford reason to expect a system of hostilities and bad treatment on his part, which we neither fear nor provoke.

To return to our internal affairs :-In the midst of the difficulties and dangers which surround the Executive Power, its principal object and attention has been directed to the installation of the existing Congress, which happily could be assembled: the Constituent Act was passed; and the Republick happily and tranquilly assumed the Federative Form; the tempestuous clouds, which showed themselves towards the West and the South, disappeared; conspiracies have been opportunely discovered, and crushed at the moment of bursting forth; on the 19th of July the torch of Civil War was extinguished and annihilated; the Constitution, destined to govern the Federal Union, has been concluded and solemnly sanctioned: all has at length assumed a favourable aspect, and the Republick is now in a condition to receive the impulse necessary to its progress towards its aggrandizement and elevation.

Such is our present position: and what more could be expected of a People in its infancy, and in a state of apprenticeship and inexperience? Have they done more who doubt our capability of governing ourselves? The vicissitudes, changes, and revolutions, from which, even the most powerful and best organized Governments are not exempted, may be expected to occur amongst us. But does not the basis of benevolence and circumspection, the fund of discretion and good feeling, the force of privileged instinct, with which the Nation is saving and forming itself, afford a sufficient guarantee for hoping, that patriotism will always predominate amongst us, and that, ultimately, the work of our establishment and consolidation will be consummated? Countrymen from what has been done in so short a time, the Mexican People may easily infer what they are capable of effecting. It is true that some zealous and well-intentioned individuals expect to see you already on a par with adult Nations, and are even grieved and

disheartened, that we have not arrived at that point; but such an expectation is unreasonable the thing is impracticable,-the elevation of a People can only be the work of time, and with good Institutions. Let us not then exaggerate evils, which, if they do exist, are inevitable to our situation: let us be penetrated with the conviction of our being equal to our task, and let us be more and more convinced that we can in the end attain our object, since we have overcome the most arduous and painful part of it: the steps which we have yet to take are few; the sacrifices are small which we have yet to make; let us not then lose a good which is almost in our hands, nor, on the eve of success, render ourselves unworthy of triumph and happiness.

With respect to ourselves, who have been unmeritedly elevated to the highest Station of the Republick, and have administered the Government in rude and difficult times; we have had the good fortune never to have compromised ourselves with the Enemies of our Country, from a devotion to which, we are now passing, with satisfaction, from the Supreme Command, to a passive state of obedience: we have never abused the plenitude of power, nor the extraordinary functions confided to us by the Sovereign Congress. Do not such claims entitle us to expect, in these last moments, by the indulgence of the Mexican Nation, to fix its attention on its dearest and most precious interests?

Countrymen let us always bear in mind, that no Government can exist without subordination; that economy and virtue are the soul of federation, and that, without union, we shall infallibly lose our Independence. United, whatever may be the reforms and modifications which circumstances may introduce amongst us, we shall continue free, independent, and happy; but if, unfortunately, we disagree, we shall be the laughing-stock of Nations, the execration of our brethren and neighbours, and, that which we ought most to fear, the prey of our ancient enslavers, who will return to bind us with heavier chains, and come to insult our misfortunes with augmented pride and malignity. Let us then never remove this idea from our minds-let us close all the avenues to discord, and guard against such a disgraceful and insupportable humiliation. Let us not deceive ourselves: there is no state in the Federation which can remain secure, and exist of itself alone. Whoever proposes the attempt, is the most perfidious and mischievous Enemy of our Country; for general disorganization would be the result: thenceforward, weakness and prostration, and, in the end, ruin and slavery. Let us not then forget this conservative principle of the Republick, and its welfare:-that, united, Anahuac is capable of everything:--but, divided, we are nothing:-liberty is lost, and our Country disappears, if unfortunately we should be involved in dissensions and divisions.

Although we have not the glory of leaving the Nation as consolidated and flourishing as we could desire, yet we have the satisfaction

of knowing that it preserves itself in a state of energy and vigour : thus far it has gone, as it were, by itself: it required nothing on our part but rectitude of intention: but power and authority being now concentrated, a new career opens for its good, and it must rapidly advance to the point, where aggrandizement, prosperity, and splendour, are all united. In descending from the elevated situation in which the will of the Nation placed us, no other idea occupies us, no other sentiment agitates us, than that of the public happiness: the great and inestimable kindness with which we have been distinguished, imposes upon us the delightful obligation of being the first and most ardent of Patriots. We shall do our best to fulfil this duty: we shall employ ourselves in the service of, and in devotion to, our Country, regardless of the sacrifices it may occasion; and if it be permitted to us to enjoy private life, we hope to render our retirement useful, by giving examples of respect and subordination to authority-of obedience and submission to the Law.

Let us then prepare the happiness of future Generations: May our Country improve, elevate, and aggrandize itself in every respect! May our fellow-Citizens be happy: and may this rich, fertile, and precious soil, on which we first saw the light, be shortly ranked among Nations, celebrated by some, and feared by others, as a land of liberty, a school for morals, the asylum of the good, the rock of destruction to ambition, and the grave of Tyrants!




MANIFESTO of General Victoria, on his Election as President of the Republick of Mexico.-(Translation.)

MEXICANS, Mexico, October 10, 1824. CALLED by your suffrages to the high station of President of The United States, when I believed that the moment had arrived for my retirement, to enjoy, in the midst of my Fellow-Citizens, the benign influence of the Laws, under a free Government, acquired by the heroic exertions of the valiant sons of the Country; I am bound to address a few words to you, to express to you my feelings, my wishes, and the principles which I propose to adopt as the invariable rule of my conduct.

It would be useless to speak to you of my incapacity to discharge the obligations imposed upon me by my Country; malignity would attribute to false modesty the ingenious confessions of a man, who, though he have learned to defy every danger, and to face death with all its horrors, cannot flatter himself with possessing the knowledge necessary for directing a great Nation, and much less at the period of its first formation, and when, just emerging from a prolonged revolution, Parties may yet produce agitation. I wish, notwithstanding, to assure

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